91 Flowers That Start With C

1. Caesalpinia Decapetala

Caesalpinia Decapetala

Caesalpinia decapetala, also known as “Mysore thorn,” is a climbing plant from the bean family. It features a dark red bark, and its branches, petioles, and inflorescence are covered with soft hairs and hooked thorns.

The pinnate leaves have stalks, with ovate membranous leaflets. It produces terminal racemose inflorescences with spiky main stalks. Its petals are yellow, membranous, and either round or obovate.

The pod is elongated tongue-shaped, and the flowering and fruiting period spans from April to October.

Originally from China, the Mysore thorn thrives on hillside shrubs, plains, hillsides, and riversides. It’s a heliophilous species, favoring sunlight but also tolerant of partial shade. It prefers warm, humid environments and thrives best in fertile, well-draining, slightly acidic soil.

Propagation methods include cuttings and sowing.

The Mysore thorn has both medicinal and economic value. Its roots, stems, and fruits are used in traditional medicine. It has a warm nature, bitter and astringent taste, and is non-toxic.

It’s known for dispelling cold, promoting blood circulation, detoxifying, and killing parasites. It’s commonly used to treat muscle and bone pain, as well as bruises.

2. Caesalpinia Pulcherrima

Caesalpinia Pulcherrima

Caesalpinia pulcherrima, commonly known as “Pride of Barbados,” is a shrub or small tree from the bean family. Its branches are hairless and come in shades of green or pinkish-green.

The leaves are bipinnate. Its inflorescence is an umbrella-like raceme, with hairless sepals. The petals are bright orange or yellow and round, with red filaments, a hairless ovary, and an orange-yellow style.

The pod is thin and narrow, inversely lanceolate to ovate, and the seeds have a long beak, turning dark brown upon maturation. It can bloom and bear fruit almost all year round.

Native to tropical regions, the Pride of Barbados loves a warm, humid, and sunny environment. It’s slightly shade-tolerant but not cold-resistant. It grows well in humus-rich, well-draining, slightly acidic soil. Its propagation method is mainly through seeds.

The seeds of the Pride of Barbados can be pressed for oil and have medicinal properties. The roots, stems, and fruits are also used in traditional medicine.

With its vibrant flowers that bloom throughout the year, this plant offers spectacular visual appeal, making it an excellent choice for gardens. It’s suitable for hedgerows and trellis-based greenery.

3. Calendula Officinalis

Calendula Officinalis

Calendula Officinalis, commonly known as Marigold, is an annual herbaceous plant of the Asteraceae family. Its leaves are oblong or ovate, with a petiole, and have slightly wavy edges. The stem is lanceolate with no petiole.

The flower head is relatively large, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, predominantly in orange-yellow hues. The fruit is curved, either pale yellow or light brown.

The outer fruit often has tiny prickles and a beak at its tip. It blooms from April to September and bears fruit from June to October.

Marigold is native to Egypt and southern Europe. It thrives in temperate and cool climates, heat-sensitive but cold-resistant. It requires ample sunlight or light shade, and well-drained, moderately fertile soil. It is somewhat drought-tolerant.

Marigolds are primarily propagated by seeds, with the best sowing seasons being autumn and early spring. They can also be sown in greenhouses.

Marigolds have therapeutic properties such as liver calming, heat clearing, wind dispelling, and phlegm transforming.

Its vivid and beautiful appearance offers high ornamental value, making it an ideal plant for courtyards, parks, and floral displays. Its symbolic meanings include hope for happiness and the pain of separation.

In India, Marigolds are revered as sacred flowers used to adorn temples.

4. Callistemon Rigidus

Callistemon Rigidus

Callistemon Rigidus, commonly known as “Stiff Bottlebrush,” is an evergreen shrub of the Myrtaceae family. Its bark is tough and gray-brown. The young branches are angular, initially covered with silky hairs but soon become hairless. Its leaves are leathery and linear.

The spicate inflorescence grows at the branch tips, with green, ovate petals. The stamens are bright red, and the anthers are dark purple and elliptical. The fruit is semi-spherical, and its seeds are elongated. It blooms from June to August.

The Stiff Bottlebrush is native to Australia. It prefers a warm and humid climate, can withstand the intense summer sun, and is somewhat cold-resistant. It thrives in fertile, acidic soil but can also tolerate poor soil conditions. Propagation methods include sowing and cutting.

The Stiff Bottlebrush is warm in nature and pungent in taste. It has medicinal properties like warming the body’s core, dispelling cold, regulating Qi, and relieving pain.

It’s beneficial for symptoms like stomach bloating and cold-induced nausea. This plant belongs to the aromatic category, and its tiny leaves emit a pleasant fragrance suitable for extracting essential oils.

5. Callistemon Viminalis

Callistemon Viminalis

Callistemon Viminalis, commonly known as the Weeping Bottlebrush, is an evergreen shrub from the Myrtaceae family and the genus Melaleuca. It typically grows to a height of 6.5 to 16.5 feet.

The bark is fissured, with young stems being cylindrical and slender, hanging down. Its leaves are leathery and range from lanceolate to linear-lanceolate in shape, with tips tapering to a point.

Both surfaces of the leaves densely populate with black glands. Its dense flower spikes resemble bottlebrushes, with a hairy floral axis, membranous, nearly round, pale green petals, and a profusion of stamens.

The fruits are bowl-shaped or hemispherical. The flowering period is from April to September, while the fruiting period is from May to October. Due to its brush-like flower spikes, it’s also referred to as the “Bottlebrush Tree.”

Native to New South Wales and Queensland in Australia, the Weeping Bottlebrush thrives in warm climates, is sunlight-loving, shade-intolerant, frost-resistant, and resilient. It prefers either fertile, moist, acidic soils or thin, dry soils. Typical propagation methods include seeding and cutting.

The Weeping Bottlebrush, with its beautiful flower form, is excellent for streetscaping and landscaping, making it a superb ornamental plant. The symbolic meaning of its flower is “small contributions accumulate.”

6. Callistephus Chinensis

Callistephus Chinensis

Callistephus Chinensis, or the China Aster, is an annual or biennial herb from the Asteraceae family. Its stem is erect, ribbed, and covered with white coarse hairs.

The mid-stem leaves are ovate, rhomboid-ovate, spoon-shaped, or nearly round. Leaf stalks are elongated, covered with white short stiff hairs, and have narrow wings.

The flower head is solitary, situated at the tip of the stem, with a yellow corolla. Its fruits are elongated-ovate and inverted lanceolate. The flowering and fruiting period is from May to October.

Originating from China, the China Aster requires ample sunlight, prefers cool weather but is not frost-tolerant, and is heat-sensitive. It thrives in moderately fertile, moist, and loose soil, and is typically propagated through seeds.

The China Aster has a bitter taste and is considered neutral in properties. It clears the liver and brightens the eyes, making it useful for conditions like red and swollen eyes or blurred vision. In horticulture, it is highly valued for its ornamental beauty.

7. Calonyction Aculeatum

Calonyction Aculeatum

Moonflower, scientifically known as Calonyction Aculeatum, is a large annual twining herb from the Convolvulaceae family, Ipomoea genus. The Moonflower plant exudes milky sap. It has cylindrical stems, smooth with soft spines.

The leaves are ovate, with a sharply pointed tip and a heart-shaped base. The flowers are white with a hint of pale green in the petals, fragrant, and bloom at night.

The fruit is ovate with a sharp point. It flowers and fruits from July to October. The large, beautiful white blossoms resemble a full moon and, as they bloom during the night, the plant is aptly named Moonflower.

Native to the tropical and temperate regions of the New World, Moonflower thrives in warm and humid conditions.

It is not frost-tolerant and requires high levels of temperature, light, and humidity. While it is adaptable to most soil conditions, it doesn’t have demanding soil requirements. Propagation is mainly by seeds, but cuttings can also be used.

Moonflower is known for its medicinal properties, such as relieving surface symptoms, suppressing coughs, and alleviating wind-related pains. Its large, pure, and elegant white blossoms make it ideal for balcony decoration, suitable for gardens and trellis cultivation.

The tender leaves of the Moonflower can be stir-fried and consumed, while the dried flowers can be used to brew tea.

8. Camellia Azalea

Camellia Azalea

Camellia Azalea is a shrub from the Theaceae family, Camellia genus. The young branches are red and hairless, while older branches turn grey.

The leaves are leathery, inverted ovate-elliptical, dark green and shiny when dried, with rounded or blunt tips and a cuneate base. It bears deep red flowers that grow singly at the top or in the leaf axils.

The fruit is a short spindle-shaped capsule with persistent calyx lobes. The peak blooming period is from July to September, lasting until February of the following year.

Originating from China, the Camellia Azalea thrives in warm, humid, and semi-shaded environments. It has a strong tolerance for shade, mild cold tolerance, and prefers deep, fertile, humus-rich, acidic soil. Common propagation methods include cuttings and layering.

9. Camellia Japonica

Camellia Japonica

Camellia Japonica, from the Theaceae family and Camellia genus, is an evergreen shrub or small tree. Its leaves are thick and leathery, elliptical, with slightly pointed tips, broad wedge-shaped bases, and finely serrated edges. The petals form a bowl-like shape, and its fruit is spherical.

Camellia Japonica does not have a distinct dormant period throughout the year. Its flowering period is relatively long, ranging from October to May of the following year, with its peak bloom time from January to March.

Native to China, Camellia Japonica prefers warm and moist environments. It has a certain degree of cold resistance and thrives in fertile, loose, slightly acidic soil. Propagation methods include cuttings and grafting.

Camellia Japonica is best planted in mountainous regions with a certain altitude, particularly on southern-facing slopes. These terrains offer abundant rainfall, promoting optimal growth and development.

Due to its versatility in suitable planting regions, Camellia Japonica has significant ecological and economic value.

10. Camellia Japonica ‘Unryu’

Camellia Japonica 'Unryu’

Camellia Japonica ‘Unryu’ belongs to the Theaceae family, and is an evergreen shrub or small tree. It is a cultivated variety originating from the Chi Dan bud mutation and is a type of East China Camellia. Its leaves resemble those of Chi Dan but are broader.

The pointed tips of the leaves are shorter, and the leaf veins are finer and clearer than Chi Dan, often referred to as having a “snake skin” appearance. The leaf color is deep green, occasionally with yellow patches.

The flowers are red, sprinkled with white lines and patches, making them brilliantly colorful. The blooming period is approximately three months. It can be found in both mountainous and plain areas. As a premium Camellia variety, it is highly valued for its ornamental appeal.

11. Camellia Nitidissima

Camellia Nitidissima

Golden Flower Tea, scientifically known as Camellia Nitidissima, is a woody plant of the Camellia genus within the Theaceae family. Its young branches have a light brown hue, while its current year’s twigs showcase a slight purplish-brown tint, being hairless.

The leaves are leathery, dark green and glossy on the top, and light green below. The petals boast a golden-yellow shade, fleshy in texture. The fruit is flat and spherical with a depressed tip, and the seeds are brown and hemispherical. Its blossoms peak between November and December.

Named for its purely golden-yellow flowers resembling gold, Golden Flower Tea is a unique camellia variety native to China, often hailed as the “Queen of the Tea Clan”. It thrives in warm, humid climates, is drought-tolerant, prefers fertile soil, and can withstand waterlogging.

During its seedling phase, it prefers shade, but as it matures and enters its flowering phase, it greatly enjoys filtered sunlight. It’s not particularly picky about soil, growing well in slightly acidic to neutral grounds, especially in well-draining, loose soils in low-altitude hilly terrains.

Methods for propagating Golden Flower Tea include seeding, grafting, cutting, and layering.

Golden Flower Tea has astringent properties that help stop bleeding. It’s commonly used to treat blood in stools, heavy menstruation, and persistent dripping. Its buds are round and shimmer like gold, making them highly valued for ornamental purposes.

12. Camellia Reticulata

Camellia Reticulata

Yunnan Camellia, known scientifically as Camellia Reticulata, is a shrub or small tree that can grow up to 15 meters tall. Its tender branches are hairless; its leaves are broad-elliptical with sharp or abruptly pointed tips, and their base is either wedge-shaped or round.

The leaf stalks are also hairless. Its red flowers bloom at the top, with bracts and sepals forming a cup-shaped protective layer that’s predominantly yellowish-white on the back.

The red petals are ovate-circular, and the ovary sports long yellowish-white hairs, while the style may be either hairless or have white hairs at its base. Its flowering season is from January to February, with the fruiting period between September and October.

Originally from China, the Yunnan Camellia is also found in Japan. It grows in broad-leaved or mixed forests at altitudes ranging from 1500 to 2800 meters, favoring semi-shady environments with acidic soil rich in humus and good drainage. It’s sensitive to direct sunlight and dry conditions.

The Yunnan Camellia is listed as Vulnerable (VU) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List and is a nationally protected plant in China. Common propagation methods include seeding, grafting, and cutting.

The Yunnan Camellia has a bitter taste and is believed to have properties that cool the blood, stop bleeding, detoxify, and alleviate diarrhea. It’s used in treatments for conditions such as vomiting blood, blood in stools, heavy menstruation, bleeding from cuts, diarrhea, and dysentery.

The seeds can be pressed to extract an edible oil with health benefits. The flower symbolizes endearing qualitie

13. Camellia Sasanqua

Camellia Sasanqua

Camellia Sasanqua is a small tree of the Camellia genus within the Theaceae family. It has sparse branches with hairy young twigs. The leaves are leathery and elliptical, turning deep green and glossy when dried on the top, and are brownish-green and hairless below.

The flowers vary in size, with the buds and sepals covered in soft hairs. The petals are wide and ovate, and they are red in color. The fruit is spherical, and the seeds are brown and hairless.

The blooming period ranges from November to the following March. Named “Camellia Sasanqua” due to its flowers that share characteristics of both plum blossoms and camellias.

Originally from Japan, Camellia Sasanqua enjoys a warm and humid climate. It prefers light and is somewhat shade-tolerant, disliking strong light. It’s a semi-shade plant best grown in well-draining, humus-rich, moist, slightly acidic soil. Its primary method of propagation is through cutting.

The flower symbolizes modesty and elegance. Camellia Sasanqua has an elegant image with a transcendent charm.

With its beautiful structure and lush leaves and flowers, it can be planted alone or in pairs in gardens and lawns. Its full form, splendid flowers, and suitability for pruning also make it ideal for foundational planting and hedging.

14. Campanula Medium

Campanula Medium

Campanula Medium, commonly known as Canterbury Bells, is a biennial herbaceous plant from the Campanula genus within the Campanulaceae family. It grows between 50 to 120 centimeters tall.

The plant has a robust, upright stem and basal leaves. Leaves cluster at the base, ranging from ovate to inverse ovate shapes. It has 1-2 small flowers clustered together in a racemose inflorescence, with a bell-shaped corolla that’s about 6 centimeters long, available in white, blue, or purple.

The fruit is a capsule, retaining the persistent calyx lobes, and contains numerous elliptical and smooth seeds. The flowering period is from May to June.

Native to Southern Europe and other temperate zones up to the subarctic regions, Canterbury Bells thrive in cool summers and mild winters, with an optimal growth temperature between 13-18℃. They enjoy abundant sunlight but can tolerate partial shade.

Canterbury Bells are common garden plants in the winter and spring seasons and are also suitable for courtyard cultivation or as medium to large potted plants, making them perfect for decorating living rooms and balconies.

15. Campsis Grandiflora

Campsis Grandiflora

Campsis Grandiflora, commonly referred to as Chinese Trumpet Vine, belongs to the Bignoniaceae family and is a climbing perennial plant. Its stem is woody with a peeling bark that’s brownish when dry, and it attaches to objects using aerial roots.

The leaves are opposite and pinnately compound with 7-9 leaflets, which are ovate to lanceolate, having 6-7 pairs of lateral veins. Both surfaces of the leaflets are hairless, with coarse serrated edges. The main leaf stalk is between 4-13 cm in length, with leaflet stalks around 5(-10) mm long.

Flowers are borne in loose terminal panicles, with the floral axis being 15-20 cm long. The calyx is bell-shaped and around 3 cm long. The corolla is bright red on the inside and orange-yellow on the outside, measuring approximately 5 cm, with semi-circular lobes.

The stamens are attached near the base of the corolla tube. The style is linear, about 3 cm long. The fruit resembles a slender bean pod and contains several seeds. It flowers from May to August.

It’s native to China and Japan, and is cultivated in Vietnam, India, and Pakistan. This plant is robust and thrives in warmth, having a certain degree of cold resistance.

While it prefers abundant sunlight, it’s also quite shade-tolerant. It can grow in saline-alkali and infertile soils but thrives best in deep, fertile, well-draining, slightly acidic soil.

16. Campsis Radicans

Campsis Radicans

Campsis Radicans, known as Trumpet Creeper or American Trumpet Vine, is also from the Bignoniaceae family. It’s a climbing plant with aerial roots, reaching up to 10 meters in length. It has 9-11 leaflets which are elliptical to ovate-elliptical.

The apex of the leaf is acuminated, and the base is cuneate. The margins are toothed and, at least along the midrib, covered in short soft hair. The calyx is bell-shaped, approximately 2 cm long, slightly rolled outward without prominent longitudinal ridges.

The corolla tube is slender and funnel-shaped, ranging in color from orange-red to bright red. The fruit is cylindrical, between 8-12 cm long and about 2 mm thick, having a stalk and a hard shell.

Originally from the Americas, it’s cultivated in Vietnam, India, and Pakistan. It enjoys sunlight, has some shade tolerance, is cold-resistant, drought-tolerant, and can tolerate wet conditions. It’s not particularly picky about soil and can grow in slightly alkaline conditions.

The flower can be used as a substitute for Chinese Trumpet Vine in traditional medicine, believed to promote blood circulation, regulate menstrual cycles, cool the blood, and dispel wind. The leaves contain caffeic acid, which relates to coumaric acid and ferulic acid.

17. Canna Generalis

Canna Generalis

Large Flowering Canna (Canna Generalis): A perennial herbaceous plant, standing at a height between 100cm to 150cm. It boasts a stout rhizome and tuberous underground stems. The leaves, which are spirally arranged, feature a distinct midrib and parallel pinnate veins.

Their petioles wrap around the stem in a sheath-like manner, lacking a leaf ligule, and are circular in shape, either green or purplish-red. There’s a white powdery substance on the stems and leaves, and the leaf blades are broadly elliptical.

The flowers are quite large, reaching up to 20cm, with petals stretching straight out and consisting of four petal-like stamens. They come in a variety of colors ranging from milky white, yellow, and tangerine to pink, bright red, and purplish-red.

Native to the tropical Americas, it thrives in high temperatures and abundant sunshine, preferring fertile soil. It’s moisture-loving but avoids stagnant water. The plant is sensitive to strong winds and cannot withstand cold.

In the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the above-ground parts wither in winter, but the underground rhizomes can overwinter exposed.

18. Canna Indica

Canna Indica

Indian Shot (Canna Indica): A perennial herbaceous plant of the Canna family. The entire plant is green, hairless, and covered in a waxy white powder. Its roots are tuberous; the above-ground stems grow in clusters. The leaf blades are ovate-long elliptical; the flowers are either solitary or paired.

The calyx is greenish-white with red tips; the corolla is red, and the stamens are bright red. The labellum is a curved lanceolate, and the fruit is a green elongated ovate. It blooms and bears fruit from March to December. Named “Indian Shot” because of its banana-like leaves and vibrant flowers.

Native to the Americas, the Indian Shot prefers a warm and moist climate. It cannot withstand frost and is cold-sensitive. It’s undemanding of soil type, tolerating poor soils but thriving best in fertile, moist, well-draining sandy loam. It’s also well-suited for rich clayey soil. Its propagation is achieved through rhizomes.

Indian Shot offers health benefits such as heat-clearing, dampness-removing, calming nerves, and reducing blood pressure.

It’s primarily used to treat jaundice-type acute infectious hepatitis, neurosis, hypertension, menorrhagia, and leukorrhea; when applied externally, it treats bruises, ulcers, and swellings.

This plant can absorb harmful substances like sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, making it an ideal flower for greening, beautifying, and purifying the environment. The symbolic meaning of the Indian Shot flower is “a solid future.

19. Caragana Rosea

Caragana Rosea

Rose Caragana (Caragana Rosea) is a shrub from the pea family, reaching up to 1 meter in height. Its bark is greenish-brown or grayish-brown, with slender twigs and pinnately compound leaves. The leaflets are wedge-shaped and ovate, almost leathery, deep green on top and pale green beneath.

Both the leaflet stalks and the undersides of the leaflets are sparsely covered with soft hairs. The flowers are born singly on stalks, jointed above the middle, and hairless. The calyx is tubular, often purplish-red, with triangular calyx teeth.

The corolla is yellow; the standard petal is oblong ovate, the wings are linear, and the keel petals are almost equal in length to their stalks. The ovary is hairless. Its cylindrical pods bloom from April to June and bear fruit from June to July.

Rose Caragana has dense branches and leaves, with a butterfly-shaped, yellow corolla tinged with red. It resembles a golden bird, making its flowers, leaves, and branches all suitable for ornamental purposes.

In gardens, it can be planted in clusters on lawns or alongside slopes and rocks or used as ground cover.

20. Caragana Sinica

Caragana Sinica

Chinese Caragana (Caragana Sinica) is a shrub from the pea family. Its bark is dark brown; young twigs are angular and hairless. The stipules are triangular, hardening into thorns. The leaves are typically pinnate with two pairs of leaflets, occasionally appearing palmate, either with or without thorny tips.

The flowers are born singly with a yellow corolla, often tinged with red. The pods are cylindrical. It blooms in April and May and fruits in July.

Native to China, the Chinese Caragana loves sunlight. It’s drought-resistant, thrives in poor soil, but dislikes waterlogging. It grows best in deep, fertile, moist sandy loam.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List classifies it as “Least Concern (LC)”. It is usually propagated through seeds.

The flowers of the Chinese Caragana are used medicinally. They are harvested during the peak bloom in April and May, then sun-dried or oven-dried. They have a sweet taste and are slightly warm in nature. The flowers benefit the spleen and kidneys, regulate blood, eliminate wind, and detoxify.

They are primarily used to treat fatigue-induced coughs, dizziness, ringing in the ears, weak knees and lower back, qi deficiency, congested pimples, gout, and injuries from falls and blows. Their toxicity is very low.

21. Cardiocrinum Cathayanum

Cardiocrinum Cathayanum

The Buckwheat-leaved Giant Lily (Cardiocrinum Cathayanum) is a perennial herbaceous plant of the lily family and belongs to the Cardiocrinum genus. Its leaves are papery, with a network of veins, ovate-heart-shaped or ovate, with a pointed tip.

The base is heart-shaped, and the upper side is dark green, while the underside is pale green. The flower stalk is short and thick, slanting upwards, with each flower having a bract. The bract is rectangular. The flowers are tubular, either milky white or pale green, with purple stripes inside.

The tepals are linear and inverted lanceolate, with the outer ones having pointed tips and the inner ones slightly blunt. The ovary is cylindrical, and the stigma is enlarged.

The fruit is nearly spherical, reddish-brown, with flat, reddish-brown seeds surrounded by a membranous wing. It flowers from July to August and fruits from August to September.

The Buckwheat-leaved Giant Lily thrives in the shady, damp areas under forests on slopes at elevations of 600-1050 meters.

This plant prefers moist, cool environments with some shade, and requires well-draining soil. It does not tolerate direct strong sunlight. Reproduction of this lily is primarily through bulb division and seeding.

The fruit of the Buckwheat-leaved Giant Lily is used for medicinal purposes. Its bulb has properties that moisturize the lungs, suppress coughs, calm the heart, and soothe the mind. Additionally, because of its elegant form, it has ornamental value.

22. Carthamus Tinctorius

Carthamus Tinctorius

Safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius) is an annual herbaceous plant from the Asteraceae family and belongs to the Carthamus genus. It can grow up to 150 cm tall. The stem is erect with branches at the upper part, smooth, and hairless.

The leaves are tough, leathery, shiny, and clasp the stem at their base without a stalk. The inflorescences are head-like, with bracts that are elliptical or ovate-lanceolate. The involucre is ovate, hairless, and without glandular spots.

The small flowers are either red or orange-red, all of them bisexual. The fruits are inverted ovate. It blooms and bears fruit from May to August. Safflower is originally from Central Asia. It grows both wild and cultivated in Russia and is widely cultivated in Japan and Korea.

Safflower’s flowers are used medicinally, mainly to regulate menstruation and promote blood circulation, primarily for women’s health issues.

23. Cassia Surattensis

Cassia Surattensis

The Golden Shower Tree (Cassia Surattensis) is a shrub or small tree belonging to the Fabaceae family, specifically the Cassia genus. It has many branches, with ribbed twigs. The bark is smooth and gray-brown in color.

Young branches, the axis of the leaves, and the petioles are slightly covered with soft hairs. The axis and petioles appear quadrangular. The leaves are long-elliptical or ovate, with the underside being powdery white.

The stipules are linear and curved. Its raceme inflorescence is located in the upper axil of the branches. The petals range from bright to deep yellow and are ovate to inverted ovate.

The fruit is flat, band-like, and splits open with a long beak at the end. Its seeds are shiny. It usually flowers and bears fruit throughout the year.

The Golden Shower Tree is native to India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, Australia, and Polynesia. It has a neutral to slightly yang temperament.

While young trees can tolerate shade, mature trees prefer full sun. They are drought-tolerant but cannot withstand wind or waterlogged areas. They aren’t particularly demanding regarding soil and fertilizer conditions.

They thrive on moderate hillsides, along roadsides, and in urban green belts. Reproduction is typically through seeding and cutting.

24. Catalpa Ovata

Catalpa Ovata

Chinese Catalpa (Catalpa Ovata) is a tree species from the Bignoniaceae family under the Catalpa genus. It has an umbrella-shaped crown and a straight main trunk. Young branches have sparse soft hairs.

Leaves are opposite or nearly opposite, sometimes whorled, and are broadly ovate. Its flowers are pale yellow with purple spots. The fruit is linear and drooping. Seeds are elliptical with long hairs on both ends. It flowers from May to June and bears fruit from October to November.

The Chinese Catalpa is found in the Yangtze River Basin and regions to the north in China, and it’s also cultivated in Japan. It enjoys sunlight, with seedlings being more shade-tolerant.

It prefers a warm and humid climate, is not very cold-resistant, and thrives in well-draining sandy loam soil, but can tolerate slightly saline-alkaline soil. Common reproduction is through plant division.

Chinese Catalpa has a strong resistance to pollution and insecticidal properties. It’s often planted as a shade tree in gardens, along roadsides, and is also used for greening industrial and mining areas and rural sides.

Its seeds have medicinal properties, including detoxification, diuretic effects, and anti-vomiting properties. It’s also used to treat kidney diseases, acute nephritis, and cholera-related symptoms.

25. Catharanthus Roseus

Catharanthus Roseus

Madagascar Periwinkle (Catharanthus Roseus) is a sub-shrub from the Apocynaceae family, specifically the Catharanthus genus.

This plant is either hairless or has very fine hairs and is slightly branched with a nearly square shape, striped, and gray-green in color. Its leaves are membranous and are in the shape of an inverted ovate elongated circle.

The flowers come in various colors, including red, purple, pink, white, and yellow. They are arranged in umbrella-like inflorescences, either axillary or terminal. The seeds are black and are in the shape of elongated cylinders. It flowers and bears fruit almost all year round.

Due to its extended flowering period, from spring to late autumn, it is named “Madagascar Periwinkle” (literally “long spring flower”).

Originally from East Africa, the Madagascar Periwinkle prefers high temperatures, high humidity, and semi-shaded environments. It does not tolerate extreme cold, excess moisture, or waterlogged conditions.

It can be cultivated in most soil types, but saline-alkaline soils are unsuitable. It thrives best in well-draining, breathable sandy soil or soil rich in organic matter.

The plant primarily propagates through seeds, although cuttings can be used as well. However, plants grown from cuttings are not as vigorous as those grown from seeds.

Madagascar Periwinkle has properties that are detoxifying and anti-cancerous. It is used for treating high blood pressure, cancer, tumors, leukemia, etc.

Among its compounds, vincristine and vinblastine have shown effectiveness in treating various cancers, including acute childhood leukemia, making it one of the most widely used sources of anti-cancer drugs worldwide.

26. Cattleya Hybrida

Cattleya Hybrida

Cattleya Orchid (Cattleya Hybrida) is a perennial epiphytic herbaceous plant from the Orchidaceae family, under the Cattleya genus. The stem typically swells into a pseudobulb shape, topped with 1-3 leathery leaves.

The flowers, either solitary or in a few, are arranged in a raceme originating from the top of the pseudobulb. They are large, beautiful, vibrant, and come in various colors.

The pseudobulbs are club-shaped or cylindrical, with the leaves being elliptical and leathery. Depending on the variety, the flowering period varies.

Native to tropical America, the Cattleya Orchid often grows on trees in forests or on rocks beneath the forest canopy. They prefer warm, humid environments with ample light. They are typically potted using fern roots, moss, bark pieces, etc.

Cattleya Orchids have large, elegant flowers with a myriad of bright colors and a fragrant aroma. Internationally, they are often referred to as the “King of Exotic Orchids” or the “Queen of Orchids”, making them a high-end choice for festive occasions.

27. Celosia Cristata

Celosia Cristata

Cockscomb (Celosia Cristata) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Amaranthaceae family, specifically the Celosia genus.

The flower heads of the Cockscomb plant are plume-like and come in various shapes, resembling a rooster’s comb, curled crowns, or feathery formations. They are available in colors like red, purple, yellow, and orange.

The leaves are ovate or lanceolate in shape. The flowering period spans from July to October. Its appearance, which resembles the comb of a rooster, gives it the name “Cockscomb”.

Originally native to Africa, tropical America, and India, the Cockscomb is now cultivated worldwide. It thrives best when planted in elevated, sunny locations with fertile, well-draining sandy loam soil. Propagation of Cockscomb is typically done through seeds.

Medicinally, Cockscomb has properties that help in stopping bleeding, treating vaginal discharge, and alleviating diarrhea. It’s also recognized as an ornamental plant that is resilient to polluted environments.

With its vibrant and fiery colors, Cockscomb embodies a sense of unrestrained passion and robust vitality. This has led people to associate it with the sentiment of “everlasting true love.”

28. Centaurea Cyanus

Centaurea Cyanus

Cornflower (Centaurea Cyanus) is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant belonging to the Asteraceae family and Centaurea genus. It branches from the middle of the stem and is grey-white in color, densely covered with curled hairs. The leaves are lanceolate and either entire or feather-like in division.

The flower heads are terminal and arranged in a conical inflorescence. The bracts surrounding the flower are layered in about seven rows. The outer flowers, which are larger than the inner disc flowers, have a shallow division at their tips.

The flowering period is from April to May. The name Cornflower, in Japanese context, suggests flowers that radiate like the spokes of a wheel, resembling arrows shooting out in all directions.

Originally native to southeastern Europe, the primary distribution of Cornflower is in the Mediterranean region and southwest Asia.

Cornflowers are adaptable, preferring full sunlight, and are intolerant of damp and shady conditions. They are cold-tolerant, preferring cooler climates and avoiding intense heat. They thrive best in fertile, loose, well-draining sandy soil and are propagated through seeds.

Cornflower, as a traditional folk medicine in Europe, is mainly used to treat eye inflammations. Pharmacological research indicates that Cornflower has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, and diuretic properties. It is also the national flower of Germany, symbolizing happiness.

29. Cerasus Glandulosa

Cerasus Glandulosa

Cerasus Glandulosa is a shrub belonging to the Rosaceae family, specifically the Prunus genus, growing to heights between 0.5 to 1.5 meters. Its branches are grayish-brown or brownish in color, either hairless or with short soft hairs on young branches.

The leaves are elongated-lanceolate or oval-lanceolate with a tapering tip and wedge-shaped base. The leaf stalks are either hairless or sparsely covered with soft hairs.

The flowers, which bloom either with or closely following the leaves, are either solitary or clustered. They have almost hairless stalks, triangular-oval sepals, and ovate petals that are white or pink.

The drupe fruits are red or purplish-red. The flowering period is from March to April, and the fruiting period is from May to August. The name “Cerasus Glandulosa” translates to “Wheat Plum” because it matures at the same time as wheat.

Originally native to China, Cerasus Glandulosa is also found in Japan. It thrives at altitudes of 800 to 2300 meters, on mountain slopes, beside streams, or in shrubs. It enjoys sunlight and is cold-tolerant, drought-tolerant, and moderately water-tolerant. It grows best in moist, loose, well-draining sandy loam soil. It is typically propagated through root division and grafting.

30. Cerasus Japonica

Cerasus Japonica

Cerasus Japonica, commonly referred to as Japanese Cherry, is a deciduous shrub belonging to the Rosaceae family and Prunus genus. It can grow up to 1.5 meters in height. The plant has alternate, solitary leaves that are ovate or ovate-lanceolate in shape, with incised, sharply double serrated edges.

The underside of the leaves is pale green. The stipules are linear with glandular teeth. The flowers cluster together and bloom either simultaneously with the leaves or just before the leaves emerge. The calyx tube is shaped like a spinning top, and the sepals are elliptical with fine teeth.

The petals are white or pink, shaped like an inverted ovate ellipse, and the pistil is almost the same length as the stamens. The drupe fruit is nearly spherical and turns deep red when mature.

The stone inside the fruit is smooth. The flowering period is in May, and the fruiting period is from July to August.

Cerasus Japonica is native to China but is also found in Japan and Korea. The plant loves sunlight and is cold-tolerant, drought-resistant, moisture-tolerant, and can thrive in poor soils.

It grows best in well-draining, neutral, fertile, and loose sandy loam soil, and it flourishes exceptionally well in calcareous soils. Common propagation methods include seeding, root division, and stem cuttings.

Medicinally, Cerasus Japonica has properties that help moisturize the intestines and facilitate bowel movements. It also has anti-abscess and detoxifying effects and can be used to treat symptoms of dryness and fluid retention.

31. Cerasus Serrulata ‘Gioiko’

Cerasus Serrulata 'Gioiko’

Cerasus Serrulata ‘Gioiko’ is an evergreen shrub that blooms throughout the year. It’s a horticultural variety of the Hibiscus and is highly valued for its ornamental features.

The flower has multiple layers of petals. When the flower first blooms, it displays a deep goose-yellow color. Its shape is somewhat similar to that of the Hibiscus, but it’s slightly more slender.

As time passes, the flower gradually turns white. It’s a sun-loving plant that prefers warm and moist conditions and requires ample sunlight.

32. Cerasus Subhirtella

Cerasus Subhirtella

Cerasus Subhirtella, commonly known as the Large-Leaved Early Cherry or Japanese Early Blossom Cherry, belongs to the Rosaceae family and Prunus genus. This plant is a deciduous tree that grows between 3 to 10 meters in height.

The bark of the tree is gray-brown. The young branches are gray while the newer shoots are green and densely covered with white short soft hairs. The winter buds are ovate, with the tips of the scales being sparsely hairy. Its leaves range from ovate to ovate-oblong.

The flower clusters are umbellate and bloom simultaneously with the leaves, typically between March and April. The petals are light red and have an inverted ovate-oblong shape.

By June, the plant bears its fruit, which is ovate-spherical in shape and black in color. This cherry variety is highly regarded for its ornamental value.

The Large-Leaved Early Cherry is native to Japan but is now widely distributed across the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

33. Cerasus Subhirtella

Cerasus Subhirtella

Cerasus Subhirtella ‘Pendula’, commonly referred to as the Weeping Higan Cherry, is a species from the Rosaceae family and the cherry genus. This tree typically grows between 3 to 10 meters in height and features gray-brown bark.

The twigs are gray, while the young shoots are green and densely covered with white, short, soft hairs. Distinctively, its branches spread out in an arching manner, and the smaller twigs have a drooping, whip-like appearance.

The winter buds are ovate with the tips of the bud scales being sparsely hairy. The leaves range from ovate to ovate-elliptical in shape, measuring 3-6 cm in length and 1.5-3 cm in width. The flowers grow in umbel-shaped clusters of 2-3 blossoms and bloom simultaneously with the leaves.

The fruit produced is ovate-spherical and black in color, with a slightly ridged surface. It blooms in April and fruits in June.

Native to Japan, the Weeping Higan Cherry is highly cold-resistant and thrives in areas with ample sunlight, moist climates, and well-draining, slightly acidic, fertile soils, be it sandy or loamy.

Combining the splendid bloom of cherry blossoms with the graceful beauty of willow trees, this tree is important for ornamental purposes, whether for its flowers, shape, or leaves. In Japan, it’s often referred to as the “longevity cherry tree,” symbolizing a long and healthy life.

34. Cerasus Yedoensis

Cerasus Yedoensis

Cerasus Yedoensis, commonly known as Tokyo Cherry Blossom, is a tree belonging to the Magnoliopsida class and the Rosaceae family. This tree typically grows between 4 to 16 meters in height and sports gray bark.

The twigs are light purple-brown and hairless, while the young shoots are green and sparsely covered with soft hairs. Its winter buds are ovate in shape and lack hairs. The leaves are elliptical-ovate or ovate in shape, with the upper surface being dark green and hairless, and the underside being light green with sparse soft hairs along the veins.

Flowers are arranged in an umbellate corymb, with very short primary stalks, featuring 3-4 blossoms that bloom before the leaves.

Each flower has a diameter of 3-3.5 cm; the petals are white or pink, elliptical-ovate in shape, with a concave tip and bifurcated edges.

There are approximately 32 stamens per flower, which are shorter than the petals, and the base of the flower’s style has sparse soft hairs. The fruit is nearly spherical, measuring 0.7-1 cm in diameter, black in color, with a slightly ridged surface. It blooms in April and bears fruit in May.

Native to Japan, the Tokyo Cherry Blossom is celebrated for its dense blossoms of pink hues. It can be planted singly or in groups in gardens and courtyards for ornamental purposes.

35. Cerasuscampanulata(Maxim.)


Cerasus campanulata (Maxim.), commonly referred to as the Bell-flowered Cherry, is either a tree or shrub that typically stands between 3 to 8 meters tall and possesses black-brown bark. Its twigs are gray-brown or purple-brown in color, while the young shoots are green and hairless.

The winter buds are ovate and hairless. The leaves vary in shape from ovate to ovate-elliptical or ovate-elliptical in reverse. They are thin and leathery, with the upper surface being green and hairless, while the underside is pale green and either hairless or with tufted hairs at the vein axils.

The flowers, arranged in umbel clusters of 2-4, bloom before the leaves and are 1.5-2 cm in diameter. The bracts are long-oval; the calyx tube is bell-shaped, and the calyx lobes are long-oval, entire.

The petals are pink, ovate-oblong in reverse, with the tip having a deeper hue and being concave, and occasionally having entire margins. The fruit is ovoid. The flowering period is from February to March, and the fruiting period is from April to May.

This cherry variety thrives in mountain valleys, forests, and forest edges at altitudes ranging from 100 to 600 meters. While it originates from China, it can also be found in Japan and Vietnam.

36. Cerbera Manghas

Cerbera Manghas

Cerbera Manghas, commonly referred to as the Sea Mango, is a tree species belonging to the Apocynaceae family. The tree typically stands between 4 to 8 meters tall and has gray-brown bark.

The whole plant exudes a rich milky sap. Its leaves are of thick papery texture, ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate in shape, with the upper surface being dark green and the underside light green. The flowers are white and fragrant.

The drupe (stone fruit) may be borne in pairs or singly and is broadly ovate or spherical in shape. The outer skin of the fruit is fibrous or woody and turns orange-yellow upon maturation.

Typically, there’s only one seed per fruit. It flowers from March to October, with the fruiting period spanning from July to April of the following year.

The Sea Mango prefers sunlight, can tolerate semi-shade, and thrives in warm, humid climates. It is not particularly demanding about the soil type. According to the IUCN Red List, it is categorized as “Least Concern” (LC). For propagation, seed sowing is usually employed.

37. Cercis Chinensis

Cercis Chinensis

Cercis Chinensis, known as the Chinese Redbud, belongs to the Fabaceae family and is a deciduous tree or shrub. Native to China, it enjoys sunlight and has a certain degree of cold resistance. It prefers fertile, well-draining soil and does not tolerate waterlogging.

The tree exhibits robust resprouting capabilities and tolerates pruning. The bark, flowers, and wood of this tree can be used medicinally, though its seeds are toxic.

38. Chaenomeles Cathayensis

Chaenomeles Cathayensis

Chaenomeles Cathayensis, commonly known as the Chinese Quince, is a deciduous shrub or small tree belonging to the Rosaceae family. It can grow up to 6 meters tall. Its branches have short spines, and the winter buds are triangular-ovate.

The leaves are elliptical, lanceolate, or ovate-lanceolate. The flowers bloom before the leaves emerge, with short, thick stalks or almost no stalks at all. The fruit is ovoid or nearly cylindrical. It blooms between March and May and fruits between September and October.

The Chinese Quince is native to China. It prefers a warm climate but is somewhat cold-resistant. It thrives in moist environments and requires well-draining soil. It also favors areas with ample sunlight and is not particularly demanding about the soil type.

According to the IUCN Red List, it is categorized as “Least Concern” (LC). Common methods of propagation include cutting, dividing, and layering.

The fruit of the Chinese Quince is used in traditional Chinese medicine, known for its wind-expelling, muscle-relaxing, and pain-relieving properties. After being steamed and cooked, it can also be candied.

39. Chaenomeles Japonica

Chaenomeles Japonica

Chaenomeles Japonica, known as the Japanese Quince, belongs to the Rosaceae family. It is a dwarf shrub, standing about 1 meter tall. Its branches are widely spread and have fine thorns. The young twigs are rough, cylindrical, and when young, they are velvety and purplish-red.

Two-year-old branches have wart-like protrusions. The leaves are ovate, spoon-shaped, or broad ovate, measuring 3-5 cm in length and 2-3 cm in width. Flowers, usually 3-5 in number, cluster together with short stalks or almost stalk-less, and are hairless.

The fruit is nearly spherical, with a diameter of 3-4 millimeters, yellow in color, and the calyx (the green outer whorl of a flower) sheds off. It blooms between March and June and fruits between August and October.

Native to Japan, it is highly adaptable, can withstand temperatures as low as -32℃ and as high as 42℃. It prefers light, is somewhat cold-resistant, and likes well-draining soil.

40. Chaenomeles Speciosa

Chaenomeles Speciosa

Chaenomeles Speciosa, commonly referred to as the Flowering Quince, is a plant from the Rosaceae family and the genus Chaenomeles. This deciduous shrub can grow up to 2 meters in height, with its branches spreading upright and possessing thorns.

The leaves are ovate to elliptical, occasionally long-elliptical, measuring between 3-9 cm in length and 1.5-5 cm in width.

The flowers bloom before the leaves emerge, with 3-5 flowers clustering on two-year-old branches. The fruit is spherical or ovoid in shape; its calyx (the outermost whorl of a flower) sheds off, and the fruit stalk is short or almost stalk-less.

The Flowering Quince is native to China and Myanmar. It prefers sunlight but can tolerate a bit of shade. The plant has a certain degree of cold resistance and is not particularly demanding about soil conditions.

41. Chamaemelum Nobile

Chamaemelum Nobile

Roman Chamomile, Chamaemelum Nobile, is a perennial herbaceous plant of the Asteraceae family. It possesses a strong aroma and can grow up to 30 centimeters in height. Its stems stand erect, with alternate leaves that are stalkless and twice or thrice pinnately cleft.

The final segments are very narrow. Solitary capitulum flowers bloom at the tips of the stem and long branches, displaying dimorphic blossoms. The bracts have broad membranous edges and are arranged like roof tiles.

The receptacle is conical, with the tongue-shaped flowers being female and white, while the tubular flowers are bisexual and yellow. Its fruit lacks a crown-like pappus.

Originally native to temperate regions in Asia and Western Europe, it is also found in the Americas. It has been introduced and cultivated in China.

Roman Chamomile is quite adaptable and prefers warm and moist environments. Its capitulum flowers can be used medicinally, with effects similar to those of the common chamomile. Additionally, Roman Chamomile serves as an aromatic plant.

42. Cherry Parfait

Cherry Parfait

Cherry Parfait, known as the Duke of Monaco, is a type of rose from the Rosaceae family originating from France, primarily grown for ornamental purposes.

43. Chimonanthus Praecox

Chimonanthus Praecox

Wintersweet, Chimonanthus Praecox, is a shrub from the Calycanthaceae family. Its flowers have an outer circle that is wax-yellow and an inner circle that is yellow with glossy, waxy, purple stripes. They emit a strong fragrance and have a chalice-shaped receptacle that narrows at the mouth.

The fruit receptacle becomes almost woody, shaped like a chalice or an upside-down ovate ellipse, and narrows at the mouth. It also possesses a diamond-shaped pinnate hairy epiphyte. It flowers from November to March of the following year, and its fruiting period is from April to November.

Contrary to its name, Wintersweet is not related to plum. It earned its moniker because it blooms around the same time as plums and has a fragrance similar to them, with a color resembling honey wax.

Wintersweet is native to China. It thrives in shrub forests on hillsides or beside streams, favoring deep, fertile, loose, well-draining, slightly acidic sandy loam. It does not fare well in saline-alkali soils. Wintersweet can be propagated through grafting, division, layering, or seeding.

44. Chlorophytum Comosum

hlorophytum Comosum

Spider Plant, or Chlorophytum Comosum, also known as Airplane Plant, Ribbon Plant, Spider Ivy, and St. Bernard’s Lily, hails from South Africa. In Western Europe, it’s often referred to as the Spider Plant or Airplane Plant.

A perennial evergreen from the Asparagaceae family and Chlorophytum genus, the plant has a rhizome that’s either horizontal or oblique, complemented by numerous fleshy roots. Its linear leaves are clustered, long and thin, resembling orchids, sometimes featuring green or yellow stripes down the middle.

Flower stems emerge from the leaf clusters and extend into creeping stems with clusters of leaves at their tips. The flowers are white, usually appearing in clusters of 2-4, forming a loose panicle or raceme. Occasionally, there might be petals with a hint of purple.

The fruit is a three-angled, flattened spheroid, measuring about 5mm in length and 8mm in width, housing 3-5 seeds per compartment. The plant blooms in May and fruits in August. Recognized for its air-purifying qualities, the entire plant can be used medicinally.

45. Chrysanthemum Frutescens

Chrysanthemum Frutescens

Marguerite Daisy, known scientifically as Chrysanthemum Frutescens, is a shrub from the Asteraceae family and Argyranthemum genus. It can grow up to a meter tall, with mostly woody branches. Its leaves are broadly ovate, elliptical, or oblong.

Numerous head-like flower clusters rise on long stems. The ray florets bear fruits with white membranous wide-winged ribs, while the disc florets produce fruits with narrow-winged ribs. It has a flowering and fruiting period from February to October.

A type of chrysanthemum, it’s also commonly called the Wild Chrysanthemum.

Originally from the Canary Islands, the Marguerite Daisy is now cultivated all over China. The plant thrives in cool, moist environments, is averse to high temperatures, and isn’t particularly frost-hardy. It only overwinters in warmer regions.

Fond of fertile soil, it prefers loose, humus-rich ground. Since the Marguerite Daisy doesn’t produce seeds, it’s primarily propagated through cuttings, which can be done throughout the year.

The Marguerite Daisy offers various health benefits, such as harmonizing the spleen and stomach, clearing phlegm, and calming the mind. It’s often used to treat conditions like spleen-stomach disharmony, excessive phlegm, and restlessness.

The floral symbolism of the Marguerite Daisy embodies pride, joy, and satisfaction. Furthermore, it’s seen as a flower predicting romantic relationships and is widely cherished by many.

46. Chrysanthemum Lavandulifolium

Chrysanthemum Lavandulifolium

Pineapple Daisy, scientifically named Chrysanthemum Lavandulifolium, is a perennial herb from the Asteraceae family and Chrysanthemum genus. Its stem is densely covered with soft hairs, which thin out towards the base. The large, thin leaves are mostly hairless on both sides.

The basal and mid-stem leaves are diamond-shaped, fan-shaped, or nearly kidney-shaped, presenting in green or pale green, with bi-pinnate or palmate lobes.

The inflorescence is shallow dish-shaped, with the outer bracts being linear, elongated oval, or ovate, and the margins of the four-layered bracts are brownish or blackish. The achene, or seed, is about 2mm long. Its flowering and fruiting season is from June to August.

The Pineapple Daisy is native to China and also found in Japan. It typically grows on roadside hills, barren hilly terrains, and at the edges of forests. It prefers a warm environment with abundant sunlight and isn’t particular about soil types but favors fertile conditions.

It’s not advisable to plant it in heavy, waterlogged areas. Propagation methods include root division, cuttings, seed sowing, and tissue culture.

Medicinally, the Pineapple Daisy has a bitter and spicy taste with a slightly cold nature. It’s known for its heat-clearing, detoxifying, swelling-reducing, and blood pressure-lowering properties. Additionally, it can be brewed as tea, offering liver-soothing and lung-comforting benefits.

47. Chrysojasminum Odoratissimum

Chrysojasminum Odoratissimum

Golden Jasmine, or Chrysojasminum Odoratissimum, belongs to the Oleaceae family and is part of the Jasminum genus. This plant exhibits thin branches with vine-like characteristics, bearing pinnately compound leaves arranged alternately with 5-7 small leaflets.

It produces densely fragrant, bright yellow flowers in umbrella-like clusters, blossoming from May to June and fruiting between October and November.

The Golden Jasmine loves sunlight, is tolerant of partial shade, cold-resistant, drought-tolerant, and isn’t overly particular about soil type. However, it thrives best in fertile, moist, well-draining soil. It prefers a warm and humid climate, can withstand the cold, and enjoys acidic soil.

In the southern regions, it’s often potted, and during winters, it’s moved to greenhouses to prevent frost damage and leaf shedding.

48. Cirsium Arvense

Cirsium Arvense

Creeping Thistle, scientifically named Cirsium Arvense, is a perennial herbaceous plant from the Asteraceae family and the Cirsium genus. It has a taproot and rhizomes underground.

The stem stands erect and is covered in white, spiderweb-like hairs when young. Its alternate leaves have spiny edges, and the basal leaves that are covered on both sides with white, spiderweb-like hairs fall off early.

The plant is dioecious, meaning it has separate male and female individuals. The male flower heads are smaller, while the female ones are larger.

Both have a purple-red corolla and anthers, but the female flowers possess vestigial stamens. Its achenes (fruits) are elliptical or ovate, slightly flattened, with a surface that ranges from light yellow to brown and has wavy horizontal wrinkles.

Creeping Thistle is widespread globally. It commonly grows alongside fields, roads, open spaces, or hills. It is a prevalent weed in wheat fields, cotton fields, orchards, and roadsides, often found in loose, dry soils.

In certain northern farmlands, it poses significant harm, serving as a host for aphids on cotton and the sunflower smut disease, indirectly damaging crops.

49. Cirsium Japonicum

Cirsium Japonicum 蓟

Japanese Thistle, or Cirsium Japonicum, is also a perennial herbaceous plant from the Asteraceae family and the Cirsium genus.

The stem is covered with long hairs, and the flower heads at the end of the stem are grayish-white underneath, covered with downy and long hairs. Its basal leaves are ovate, oblong-ovate, or elliptical, narrowing at the base into a winged petiole.

The flower heads are erect and terminal, with a bell-shaped involucre. The small flowers can be red or purple. The achenes are flat, obliquely wedge-shaped to inversely lanceolate, with light brown pappus (hairs). It flowers and fruits from April to November.

Japanese Thistle is native to China. It prefers a warm and moist climate, is cold-tolerant, drought-resistant, and isn’t particular about soil types. It propagates through seeds. The thistle has both medicinal and ornamental values.

The whole plant or its roots can be used in herbal medicine, known for its cool nature and sweet taste. It possesses properties that clear heat, detoxify, reduce inflammation, stop bleeding, restore liver function, and promote liver cell regeneration.

With its unique lotus-seat-like basal leaves and striking purple-red flower heads, the Japanese Thistle stands out elegantly, making it suitable for ornamental cultivation in gardens.

50. Citrus Japonica

Citrus Japonica

Kumquat, scientifically named Citrus Japonica, belongs to the Rutaceae family. It is an evergreen shrub that grows up to 3 meters tall and typically does not have thorns. The leaves are lanceolate to elongated oval in shape. The flowers are small, white, and fragrant with five petals.

The fruit is ovate or elliptical, measuring 2.5-3.5 cm in length and is golden yellow in color. Kumquats thrive in sunny and warm, moist environments.

They are not frost-tolerant but can withstand some shade. They are drought-resistant and prefer well-draining, fertile, and slightly acidic sandy soil.

Originally from southern China, the symbolic meaning of the kumquat flower is “good luck and prosperity.”

51. Clematis Courtoisii

Clematis Courtoisii

Large-flowered Clematis, known scientifically as Clematis Courtoisii, is a plant from the Ranunculaceae family and belongs to the Clematis genus. It’s a woody climbing vine that can grow between 2-4 meters long. Its roots are yellow-brown and have a slight spicy taste when fresh.

The stem is cylindrical and has a reddish-brown or deep brown surface. Young stems have sparse hairs which fall off as they mature, making the stem almost hairless. The leaves range from ternate (three-parted) to biternate.

The leaf blade is thin papery or sub-leathery. The flowers are solitary and axillary, with pedicels that are 12-18 cm long and covered in close-lying light hairs. In the middle of these pedicels, there is a pair of leaf-like bracts.

These bracts are ovate or broadly ovate, usually broader than the leaf blade, measuring 4.5-7 cm in length and 2.5-4.5 cm in width. The fruit is ovate and 5 mm long and 4 mm wide, reddish-brown, with sparse soft hairs.

The persistent style is 1.5-3 cm long, covered in yellow soft hairs, with an enlarged hairless stigma. It flowers from May to June and fruits from June to July.

It’s native to China and is commonly found growing on hillsides, stream banks, and road-side mixed woodlands at elevations of 200-500 meters.

52. Clematis Florida

Clematis Florida

Clematis Florida is a herbaceous vine from the Ranunculaceae family, belonging to the Clematis genus. Its stem is covered with short soft hairs, possesses vertical grooves, and has swollen nodes. The leaves are papery, narrow ovate or lanceolate.

The flowers grow from the leaf axils, with bracts that are broad ovate or ovate-triangular in shape and are white in color. The fruit is broad ovate-circular. It flowers between April and June, and bears fruit in the summer.

Clematis Florida is distributed in China and is also found in Japan. The plant loves light but is sensitive to strong sunlight. It prefers warmth, is frost-resistant, doesn’t tolerate drought, and dislikes waterlogging. It thrives in fertile, alkaline-tolerant soils.

Propagation methods for Clematis Florida include sowing seeds, cuttings, and division. The stem of Clematis Florida is used in traditional medicine, known for its diuretic properties, facilitating the movement of qi, promoting bowel movement, and relieving pain.

53. Clematis Ochotensis

lematis Ochotensis

Clematis Ochotensis, or Semi-bell Clematis, is a perennial woody vine from the Ranunculaceae family, also part of the Clematis genus. The stem is cylindrical, smooth, and hairless. The current year’s branches and leaf axils have persistent bud scales.

The scales are lanceolate with a pointed end and densely covered with white soft hairs. The leaflets are narrow ovate-lanceolate to ovate-elliptical, with a bluntly pointed tip. The upper edge of the leaf has coarse teeth, and the leaf stalk is short.

The flowers grow singly at the tip of the current year’s branch and are bell-shaped. The sepals are pale blue, rectangular-elliptical to narrow ovate. The transformed stamens are spatulate, with a round tip.

Stamens are shorter than the degenerate stamens, with linear filaments that are wider in the middle and marginally hairy. The anthers face inwards. The fruit is ovate, reddish-brown, flowering from May to June, and fruiting from July to August.

It is distributed in China and is also found in Japan and the Far Eastern region of Russia. It typically grows in valleys, edges of forests, and shrubs at altitudes of 600-1200 meters.

54. Clerodendrum Bungei

Clerodendrum Bungei

Ice Cream Tulip (Clerodendrum Bungei Tulip) is an artificially cultivated new variety of tulip. Tulips are perennial herbaceous plants. The bulb of the Ice Cream Tulip is flat-conical or flat-ovoid in shape, about 2 cm long, with brown-brown scales and is covered by a pale yellow fibrous layer.

Ice Cream Tulips are sensitive to heat, making them unsuitable for growth in Taiwan. They require pre-cultivation in a refrigeration room below 10°C for two months, followed by transplantation to a shaded area for another two months.

In 2015, an initial trial of planting over 300 of these tulips resulted in only a 50% success rate, making it a challenging variety to grow.

55. Clerodendrum Bungei

Clerodendrum Bungei

Stinking Glory Bower (Clerodendrum Bungei) belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is a shrub of the Clerodendrum genus. The plant emits an unpleasant odor. Its flower axis and leaf stalks are densely covered with brown, yellow-brown, or purple deciduous soft hairs.

The twigs are nearly round with prominent lenticels. The leaves are papery and are broadly ovate or ovate in shape. The inflorescences are terminal, dense, and have an umbel-like arrangement. The corolla is pale red, red, or purplish-red.

The drupes (fruits) are nearly spherical and turn blue-black upon maturing. The plant blooms and bears fruit from May to November. Due to its strong odor and its distant resemblance to the peony flower, it has earned the name “Stinking Peony.”

Stinking Glory Bower is native to China. It’s also found in northern India, Vietnam, and Malaysia. The plant prefers sunlight but can tolerate partial shade. It thrives in warm, humid climates and is cold-tolerant and drought-resistant.

It’s not particularly demanding in terms of soil quality. Propagation methods include division and seed sowing.

56. Clerodendrum Thomsonae

Clerodendrum Thomsonae

Bleeding Heart Vine (Clerodendrum Thomsonae): A shrub from the Verbenaceae family, its young branches are quadrangular and covered in short, yellowish-brown velvety hair, which disappears with age.

The leaves are papery in texture, narrowly ovate or oblong-ovate, with a tapering tip and a nearly round base, featuring smooth edges. Its flowers appear in cymes, either axillary or pseudoterminal, with bifurcate branches.

The bracts are narrowly lanceolate. The white calyx is fused at the base, swells in the middle, and splits into triangular-ovate lobes that taper at the tips. The corolla is deep red, externally covered in fine glandular hairs, with elliptical segments.

There are four stamens, extending outwards alongside the style. The stigma is bifurcated. The drupe is almost spherical, with a shiny, dark brown exterior. The persistent calyx doesn’t enlarge and is purplish-red. The flowering period is from March to May.

Bleeding Heart Vine prefers warm, humid conditions with semi-shade and ample sunlight, and is not frost-tolerant. It is native to West tropical Africa and Mexico.

57. Clivia Miniata

Clivia Miniata

Bush Lily (Clivia Miniata): A perennial evergreen herb from the Amaryllidaceae family, it has fleshy, milky-white, robust roots.

Its broad belt-shaped leaves emerge in two neat rows from the base of the stem, boasting a tough, deep green texture. Its umbrella-shaped inflorescence comes in shades of orange-red and yellow. Its berries are spherical and turn red upon maturation.

Propagation is typically through seeds or division. Inspired by the plant’s refined and elegant appearance, Japanese Kubo Saburo named it “Bush Lily.”

Originally from the subtropical forests of southern Africa, the Bush Lily typically blooms in the spring and summer, though it can sometimes flower in winter. The plant prefers cooler, semi-shaded conditions and is intolerant of direct sunlight and high temperatures.

Growth ceases when temperatures drop below 5°C. It thrives in rich, moist soil with good drainage and dislikes dry environments.

Not only do the leaves of the Bush Lily purify the air and absorb dust, but they also have potent medicinal properties.

The symbolic meaning of the Bush Lily flower is nobility, gentleness, courtesy, talent without arrogance, success without pride, and humility in prosperity.

58. Clivia Nobilis

Clivia Nobilis

Drooping Clivia (Clivia Nobilis): A plant from the Amaryllidaceae family, native to southern Africa.

This plant stands at a height of about 38 centimeters, with drooping flowers in an orange-yellow hue touched with a hint of pale green. Its leaves are slender and elongated, and the flower stalk is slightly shorter than the leaves.

The foliage is a rich green, giving the plant an elegant and solemn appearance. It thrives in warm and cool conditions, requiring ample sunlight in the winter and slight shade during the summer. It prefers loose, fertile, leaf-mold soil.

Growth ceases when winter room temperatures drop below 5°C, and when temperatures rise above 30°C in the summer, the flowering period is shortened, and the color becomes more muted.

59. Coelogyne Prolifera

Coelogyne Prolifera

The Green-Yellow Orchid, Coelogyne Prolifera: Its rhizome is somewhat rigid, measuring 5-6 millimeters thick, with short internodes and is densely covered with leathery, scale-like sheaths. The pseudobulbs are narrow ovate to elongated, bearing two leaves at the tip and several sheaths at the base.

The leaves are oblong to lanceolate or almost oval, tapering at the end. The flower stem emerges from the center of the mature pseudobulbs’ two leaves, generally producing 4-6 green or yellow-green flowers that are small, about 1 centimeter in diameter.

The petals are linear, slightly narrower towards the base, 5-6 millimeters long, about 0.6 millimeters wide, with one vein. The lip is nearly oval, 6-7 millimeters long, about 5 millimeters wide, and three-lobed. The capsule is oblong. Blooms in June.

It grows on trees or rocks in forests at elevations of 1,200 to 2,000 meters. Found in Yunnan, China, and also distributed in Nepal, Sikkim, northeastern India, Myanmar, Laos, and Thailand.

60. Consolida Ajacis

Consolida Ajacis

The Larkspur, Consolida Ajacis, not only refers to the species Consolida ajacis (Linn.) Schur but also denotes other species within the Larkspur genus. Named for its distinctive flowers, which resemble swallows in flight, it is called the “Larkspur.”

61. Convallaria Majalis

Convallaria Majalis

Lily of the Valley, Convallaria Majalis, is a perennial herbaceous plant from the Asparagaceae family. It has slender rhizomes that grow horizontally; it produces two leaves, which are elliptical with sharp tips and a slightly narrow base.

The flower stem is tall, slightly curved outward; the bracts are lanceolate and membranous, shorter than the flower stalk. The flowers are creamy-white, broad bell-shaped, and drooping.

The berries are spherical and turn red when ripe; seeds are elliptical, flat, numbering between 4 to 6. It blooms from May to June and bears fruit from June to July. Named because its flowers resemble bells and its fragrance is similar to orchids, it’s called the “Lily of the Valley.”

Originating from the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, it is found in China. It thrives in humus-rich, well-draining, slightly acidic sandy soil but can also grow in neutral to slightly alkaline soil. It typically grows in secluded mountain valleys, prefers cool, moist conditions with diffused light, and is cold-resistant but avoids excessive heat and dryness.

Propagation is usually done by dividing the rhizome with buds, best done in autumn.

Lily of the Valley is used in treatments for congestive heart failure, edema, erysipelas, purpura, and physical injuries. Its floral language represents delicacy, hope, and purity.

With flowers hanging like a string of bells and a delightful fragrance, it’s often called the “Valley Lily.” This plant is also a source of fragrances and has been chosen as the national flower by several countries.

62. Coreopsis Basalis

Coreopsis Basalis

Golden Tickseed, Coreopsis Basalis, is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant from the Asteraceae family. It stands 30-60 cm tall with pinnately divided leaves, whose segments range from ovate to oblong.

The inflorescence is a singular head at the tip of each branch, with outer bracts almost equal in length to the inner ones. Its ray flowers are yellow with a purplish-brown base, appearing almost black-purple.

The fruit is inversely ovate, and it blooms from July to September. When the vibrant flowers bloom against the green foliage, they stand out like a golden chicken, hence its name.

Originally from North America, the Golden Tickseed is drought and frost tolerant. It isn’t particular about the soil type, loves sunlight but can tolerate partial shade. It has strong adaptability, especially against sulfur dioxide. It’s easily cultivated and often self-propagates.

Typical propagation methods include seeding, dividing the plant, and stem cuttings in the summer.

The Golden Tickseed is mainly valued for ornamental and medicinal purposes. It can be used as a tea and has been found to have potential health benefits like reducing blood sugar, acting as an antioxidant, lowering blood pressure, and reducing cholesterol.

63. Coreopsis Grandiflora

oreopsis Grandiflora

Large-flowered Tickseed, Coreopsis Grandiflora, is a perennial herbaceous plant of the Asteraceae family. Its stem is hairless or softly hairy at the base and branches out. The leaves at the stem’s base grow in pairs.

The inflorescence is a solitary head at the stem’s end with yellow ray flowers that are inversely ovate or wedge-shaped. The fruit is broad and elliptical with thicker winged edges and small protuberances. It flowers from May to September.

The Large-flowered Tickseed is native to the Americas but is also found in southern Africa and the Hawaiian Islands. It’s tolerant to drought, cold, and heat, and thrives in fertile, moist, and well-draining sandy loam soil. Its primary propagation methods are seeding, dividing the plant, and stem cuttings.

The Large-flowered Tickseed’s inflorescence can be used medicinally to stop bleeding.

With its large, radiant flowers that bloom into a brilliant gold, it’s a showstopper, making it perfect for gardens, slopes, courtyards, and urban park beautification. The flower symbolizes “forever, always, joy, happiness, and competitiveness.”

64. Cornus Alba

Cornus Alba

Red-Barked Dogwood, Cornus Alba, is a deciduous shrub belonging to the Cornaceae family. It features purplish-red bark. Its young branches are initially covered in short soft hairs but later get covered in a waxy powder. The older branches have round lenticels and annular leaf scars.

The leaves are of papery texture, opposite, elliptical or ovate in shape, dark green on the upper side and pale green on the underside. Its petals are oblong, and its anthers are pale yellow.

The fruit is a flat spherical shape. The flowering period is from June to July, and the fruiting period is from August to October.

Red-Barked Dogwood is native to China. It prefers a cool and humid climate, is semi-shade tolerant, has strong cold resistance, tolerates waterlogging, and is also drought and poor soil tolerant. It thrives best in deep, fertile, and slightly moist soils.

Propagation methods mainly include seeding, cuttings, dividing the plant, and layering.

65. Coronilla Varia

Coronilla Varia

Crown Vetch, Coronilla Varia, is a perennial herbaceous plant from the Fabaceae family. It has an erect, robust, and sprawling stem that can grow up to 100 cm tall. The plant’s pith is white, leaves are odd-pinnately compound with small membranous stipules that are lanceolate in shape.

The leaflets are thin, elliptical or oblong, hairless on both sides, with inconspicuous veins. The small stipules are also tiny, and petioles are hairless. Its inflorescence is axillary, with densely packed flowers arranged in a ball-like shape, and persistent lanceolate bracts.

The flower stalk is short, with membranous sepals, and the calyx teeth are shorter than the calyx tube. The corolla is purple, pale red, or white; the standard petal is nearly round, and the wing petals are oblong. The keel petal has a beak that’s dark purple.

The fruit is a slender cylindrical shape, and each pod has seeds. The seeds are oblong or ovate. It flowers from June to July and fruits from August to September.

Crown Vetch is native to the Mediterranean region of Europe. It has strong resilience, being drought-tolerant, cold-tolerant, poor soil tolerant, and salt-alkali tolerant. However, it doesn’t tolerate excessive moisture. It can also grow in nutrient-deprived soils.

66. Corydalis Pallida

Corydalis Pallida

Yellow Corydalis, Corydalis Pallida, belongs to the Papaveraceae family and the Corydalis genus. It’s a grayish-green herbaceous plant that grows in clusters, reaching up to 60 cm in height. The basal leaves are numerous, resembling a lotus seat, and wilt during its flowering period.

The stem leaves are somewhat dense, green on the top, and pale beneath. They are bipinnately divided, oval to oblong in shape, with the topmost ones being larger. The leaflets have rounded tips.

The inflorescence is racemose, terminal, and sometimes axillary or opposite the leaves. The bracts are lanceolate to oblong. The flowers range from yellow to pale yellow. The sepals are nearly round and centrally attached. The stamens are bundle-like and lanceolate.

The ovary is linear, and the fruits are also linear, resembling a string of beads. The seeds are shiny black, densely covered with conical protrusions, and have a hood-like structure called an aril.

It is distributed in China, northern Korea, Japan, and the Far East regions of Russia. It typically grows in forest clearings, burnt grounds, riverbanks, or stony slopes.

67. Cosmos Atrosanguineus

Cosmos Atrosanguineus

Chocolate Cosmos, Cosmos Atrosanguineus, also known as Chocolate Daisy or Chocolate Mexican Aster, is a perennial herbaceous plant of the Asteraceae family, native to the Hidalgo state in Simapan, Mexico. It’s sun-loving, tolerates partial shade, and has moderate cold hardiness.

The specific epithet “atrosanguineus” means “dark blood-red,” reflecting the distinctive color of its flowers. The Chocolate Cosmos emits a subtle chocolate scent, making it especially attractive during midsummer and late summer.

68. Cosmos Bipinnatus

Cosmos Bipinnatus

Cosmos Bipinnatus, commonly known as the Garden Cosmos, is a herbaceous plant that can be either annual or perennial. It belongs to the Asteraceae family and the Cosmos genus. The stem is either hairless or slightly covered with soft hairs.

The leaves are bipinnately divided. Its flowers are singular and appear in a head-like formation. The outer layer of the flower bud is lanceolate and pale green in color. The petals are ovate to obovate, with the ray florets being purple-red to white and the disk florets yellow.

The flower’s pistil is relatively short. The fruit is linear and yellow-brown, turning black upon maturing. It blooms from June to August and bears fruit from September to October.

The pink hue of the Cosmos flower is somewhat reminiscent of cherry blossoms, hence its Japanese name “Autumn Cherry,” which is a play on words.

The Garden Cosmos is native to Mexico in the Americas. It prefers a warm and sunny environment, is cold-resistant, dislikes shade, high temperatures, and waterlogging. It can tolerate thin soils but thrives best in loose, fertile, and well-draining soil.

The primary method of propagation for the Garden Cosmos is by seeds.

The whole plant can be used medicinally, possessing properties that cool and detoxify, improve vision, reduce swelling, and dispel dampness.

69. Cosmos Sulphureus

mos Sulphureus

Cosmos Sulphureus, sometimes referred to as the Sulfur Cosmos or Yellow Cosmos, is also known by the name “Gesang flower” or “Gesang Medo.” There’s considerable debate over which specific plant is truly referred to as the “Gesang flower.”

In the Tibetan language, “Gesang” translates to “happy time” or “happiness,” and “Medo” means “flower.” Thus, the Gesang flower is also called the “Happiness Flower.”

For a long time, it has symbolized the Tibetan people’s hopes and wishes for happiness and good fortune.

It’s believed that the term Gesang flower might be a general term for the most resilient wildflowers on the plateau.

From a botanical perspective, plants from the Asteraceae family, specifically the Aster genus, as well as cultivated plants common from Lhasa to Chamdo, like the chrysanthemum, match the characteristics of the Gesang flower.

70. Costus Speciosus

Costus Speciosus

Costus Speciosus, commonly known as the Crepe Ginger, belongs to the Costaceae family and is a perennial herbaceous plant that can grow up to 3 meters tall. The base of the stem is almost woody, while the top often coils in a spiral. The leaves are oblong or lanceolate.

The spike-like inflorescences are terminal, elliptic or ovate. The fruit is slightly woody and turns red when mature, with a persistent calyx at the top. The seeds are black. It blooms between July and September and bears fruit from September to November.

A unique trait of this plant is that two flowers bloom simultaneously and wither together, leading to its colloquial name which can be translated as “growing old together.”

Costus Speciosus is native to China and is widespread in tropical Asia. It is commonly found at altitudes between 45 to 1700 meters, thriving under sparse forests, damp valleys, roadside grasses, barren slopes, and beside ditches.

The plant prefers warm and humid environments and is fond of light. It is not cold-tolerant. Although adaptable to various soils, it grows best in fertile, well-draining loamy or sandy soils. Propagation is typically done through division or seeds.

Medicinally, Crepe Ginger has properties that help in detoxifying, reducing swelling, and promoting diuresis. It also possesses anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anti-tumor activities.

71. Creeping Plant

Creeping Plant

Creeping Plant from the Wisteria genus in the Fabaceae (bean) family is also known by another name which can be translated as “don’t tease vine.” It is a warm and temperate climate plant, native to China, but is also found in Korea and Japan.

It is distributed in North China and cultivated in East, Central, South, Northwest, and Southwest China. This plant can be grown ornamentally in gardens for its beauty.

The flowers can be stir-fried and consumed as a vegetable, while the stem and leaves have medicinal properties.

72. Crinum Amabile

Crinum Amabile

Crinum Amabile, commonly known as the Giant Spider Lily, is a perennial evergreen herbaceous plant belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family. It can grow between 60-100 cm tall. Its leaves are large, broad, band-like or arrow-shaped with pointed tips and a base that embraces the stem.

The flowering stalk emerges from the bulb and produces an umbel at its tip, with each umbel comprising more than 20 small flowers.

The back of the flowers is purple, the upper surface is a light pink, and the center bears a deeper purple stripe. The fruit is capsular. The plant can flower almost throughout the year.

Giant Spider Lily is native to China but also extends to Vietnam, India, and Malaysia. It often grows in riverbeds and sandy areas.

The plant prefers warm and humid conditions, loves sunlight, is intolerant to shade, heat-resistant, and not cold-hardy. It thrives in loose, fertile, sandy soil rich in organic matter, with an optimal growing temperature between 15℃-28℃. Propagation is usually done by division.

Due to its compact shape and elegant flowers which have a tropical feel, the Giant Spider Lily is often planted in groups under trees, along roadsides, corners, near ponds, or in gardens for decorative purposes.

73. Crinum Asiaticum

Crinum Asiaticum

Crinum Asiaticum, commonly known as the Poison Bulb or Giant Crinum Lily, is a robust perennial herbaceous plant from the Amaryllidaceae family. It has a cylindrical bulb. The leaves are deep green, linear-lanceolate with wavy margins and taper to a pointed tip.

The flowering stalk stands upright and is almost the same length as the leaves. The overall bracts are lanceolate, and the secondary ones are linear. The stamens are pale red with linear anthers that taper to a point. It flowers in the summer and bears fruit in October.

Crinum Asiaticum is originally from Indonesia and Sumatra. The plant loves warm and moist environments, enjoys sunlight but can tolerate partial shade, is not cold-resistant but is highly tolerant to salinity. It prefers well-draining soil. Reproduction can be through seeding or division.

74. Crocosmia Crocosmiflora

Crocosmia Crocosmiflora

Crocosmia Crocosmiflora, commonly known as Montbretia, belongs to the Iridaceae family and is a perennial herbaceous plant. It has a flattened globular corm, enveloped in a brown fibrous membrane.

The above-ground portion reaches about 50 cm in height and may branch out. Its leaves are linear-lanceolate, with a red sheath at the base that encircles the stem.

The flowers are numerous, arranged in compound cylindrical inflorescences. They are funnel-shaped and come in colors such as red, orange, and yellow. The flowering period is from July to August, and the fruiting period is from August to October.

Montbretia is native to South Africa and is cultivated throughout China. It prefers warm, moist environments with abundant sunlight.

While it is somewhat cold-resistant, it thrives best in well-draining, loose, and fertile sandy loam. The typical method of propagation is by dividing the corms.

The corms of Montbretia can be used medicinally. They are known to dispel blood stasis, alleviate pain, stop bleeding, and promote tissue regeneration.

75. Crocus Sativus

Crocus Sativus

Crocus Sativus, commonly known as the Saffron Crocus, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the Iridaceae family. Its corm is flattened and round, about 3 cm in diameter, and is wrapped in a yellowish-brown membranous covering.

The leaves are linear, gray-green, and have rolled edges. The flowers can be pale blue, reddish-purple, or white, and have a pleasant aroma. The style is orange-red and the stigma is slightly flattened. The fruit is an elliptical capsule, about 3 cm long.

Saffron Crocus is originally from the Mediterranean coastal regions of Southern Europe and Anatolia.

Saffron has a sweet taste and a neutral nature. It has various medicinal properties, including invigorating the blood, dispelling blood stasis, cooling the blood, detoxifying, relieving depression, and calming the mind.

The multiple glycosides it contains can increase the blood flow in the coronary artery, regulating blood circulation, fighting fatigue, and combating aging. Research has also found that saffron possesses significant anti-cancer activities.

76. Crossandra Infundibuliformis

Crossandra Infundibuliformis

Crossandra Infundibuliformis, commonly known as the Firecracker Flower or Birdtail Flower, belongs to the Acanthaceae family and the Crossandra genus. It’s a shrubby perennial herb that grows 20-60 cm tall. It is native to regions including Angola, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and Sri Lanka.

The plant prefers bright, indirect light, though it is very adaptable to sunlight. It dislikes direct sunlight during the scorching summer months but requires direct sun exposure during winter. The optimal growth temperature ranges between 18-26℃.

Reproduction methods include both cutting propagation and seed propagation.

With its lush foliage, unique flower shape, vibrant colors, and extended blooming period, it’s an ornamental plant. It can be grown as a small potted plant or combined with other plants, adding poetic and picturesque vibes to indoor settings.

77. Cryptostegia Grandiflora

Cryptostegia Grandiflora

Cryptostegia Grandiflora belongs to the Asclepiadaceae family and has two species distributed across tropical Asia and Africa. It’s a woody vine with opposite leaves. The flowers are large and beautiful, arranged in terminal umbel inflorescences.

The calyx has lanceolate sepals, and the corolla is funnel-shaped with five lobes. The corona scales are conical, entire, or bifurcated. The fruit is robust, broad, and winged in three parts.

78. Cuphea Hookeriana

Cuphea Hookeriana

Cuphea Hookeriana belongs to the Lythraceae family and the Cuphea genus. It’s a shrubby or sub-shrubby plant growing 30-70 cm tall.

The plant stands upright, is coarse, and is covered with thick hairs and tiny stiff hairs. The leaves are thin-leathery, elongated to a pointed tip, round to broadly wedge-shaped at the base, extending to the petiole.

When young, both sides of the leaves have short coarse hairs but become rougher as they mature. The flowers have six petals, with the two upper ones being significantly larger, deep purple, wavy, and clawed.

The other four petals are tiny and conical, sometimes absent. The ovary is rectangular. The plant is native to Mexico.

The commonly cultivated “Cuphea” is likely the fine-leaved Cuphea. It’s robust, adaptable, grows vigorously, has few pests or diseases, and is easy to care for. It’s an excellent flowering shrub with pure and elegant flower colors.

79. Curcuma Phaeocaulis

Curcuma Phaeocaulis

Curcuma Phaeocaulis, a perennial herbaceous plant, belongs to the Zingiberaceae (ginger) family and the Curcuma genus. The main rhizome is spirally shaped, pale yellow to white. Its leaves are round-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, often with purple spots in the middle.

The flowers emerge from the rhizomes before the leaves, forming a broad, spherical inflorescence. The bracts are ovate, with the lower part being greenish-white to green and the upper part purplish-red. The corolla is white or pink, with a yellow lip petal. It blooms from April to June.

Curcuma Phaeocaulis is native to China and is also found from India to Malaysia. It is predominantly cultivated with rare occurrences in the wild. It thrives in humid, warm environments and is sensitive to severe cold and frost. It’s best cultivated in loose, fertile, humus-rich, deep sandy loam.

Curcuma Phaeocaulis has a bitter and spicy taste, is warm in nature, and non-toxic. Its oil can alter and enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, providing anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, liver-protective, and kidney-protective effects.

80. Cyclamen Persicum

Cyclamen Persicum

Cyclamen Persicum, commonly known as Cyclamen, is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the Primulaceae family and the Cyclamen genus. The entire plant is hairless; it has a flattened spherical tuber that is brownish. Its leaves are ovate with fine rounded teeth.

The flower stalks are 15-20 cm tall, the calyx is triangular or oblong-triangular, and the corolla is white or rose-red with a deep purple throat. Its flowering period lasts up to six months. The name “Cyclamen” is a phonetic translation from its scientific name, and it implies “fairies gracefully arriving.”

Cyclamen Persicum is originally from regions like Greece, Syria, and Lebanon. It’s a plant that prefers medium to bright light and thrives in cool, moist, and sunny environments. It should be planted in loose, fertile soil that is well-draining, rich in organic matter, and slightly acidic.

The primary method of propagation for Cyclamen is by seeding, typically done between September and October.

81. Cymbidium Eburneum

Cymbidium Eburneum

Cymbidium Eburneum, commonly known as “Exclusive Spring,” is an epiphytic herbaceous plant of the Orchidaceae family. The pseudobulbs are fusiform or ovate; the flower stem emerges from the lower leaf axils of the pseudobulb, standing upright or nearly so.

The flowers are relatively large, not fully open, and possess a faint fragrance. The sepals and petals are white, occasionally tinged with a pale pink hue. The lip is also white, with a yellow patch from the center to the base, extending to the tip of the yellow skirt.

Rarely, there are purple-pink spots, and the column is white or slightly pink, sometimes with a yellow patch at its base. It blooms from February to May.

Exclusive Spring is native to Yunnan, China and is also found in countries like Myanmar, Nepal, and India. It commonly grows on rocks at altitudes ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 meters. This orchid prefers slightly stronger light and thrives in temperatures between 18°C to 28°C.

It is one of the renowned ornamental orchids, highly valued for its aesthetic appeal. It was initially used as a parent plant for hybridizing large-flowered ornamental orchids. The flower symbolizes vibrancy, nobility, and tranquility.

82. Cymbidium Ensifolium

Cymbidium Ensifolium

Cymbidium Ensifolium, known as “Sword-Leafed Cymbidium,” is a terrestrial plant. Its pseudobulbs are ovoid, concealed within the leaf base. The plant has 2-6 strap-like, glossy leaves, measuring 30-60 cm in length and 1-2.5 cm in width.

The flower stem arises from the base of the pseudobulb, usually shorter than the leaves, with a raceme bearing 3-9 flowers. The blossoms often have a fragrance, displaying varied shades, typically pale yellow-green with purple spots.

The sepals are narrowly oblong or elliptic; petals are narrowly elliptical or narrowly ovate, measuring 1.5-2.4 cm in length and 5-8 mm in width, spreading nearly flat.

The lip is almost ovate, measuring 1.5-2.3 cm in length, slightly tri-lobed. The fruit is a narrow elliptical capsule, 5-6 cm long and about 2 cm wide. It blooms mainly from June to October.

It grows under sparse forests, in shrubs, alongside valleys, or amidst grass at altitudes ranging from 600 to 1,800 meters.

While it is prevalent across various regions in China, it is also widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia, South Asia, and as far north as Japan. This flower is cultivated for its significant horticultural and medicinal values.

83. Cymbidium Faberi Rolfe

Cymbidium Faberi Rolfe

Cymbidium Faberi Rolfe, known as “Chinese Cymbidium,” is a plant of the Orchidaceae family. Its leaves are strongly upright with coarse serrations on the edges, often folded at the base in a “V” shape, displaying translucent leaf veins.

The sepals are nearly lanceolate-oval, with petals similar in shape but shorter and broader. The lip is ovate-oval with purplish-red spots. The fruit is elliptical. It blooms in April and bears fruit from August to September.

Chinese Cymbidium is native to China. It thrives in well-draining, luminous spots with an altitude ranging from 700 to 3,000 meters.

Preferring shady environments, it loves a warm and humid climate, and requires deep, loose, well-draining soil. The primary propagation method for this orchid is by division.

Commonly used as a potted plant, Chinese Cymbidium has varied and graceful forms.

Celebrated as the “Nobleman among flowers,” it possesses great ornamental value. It can also be used medicinally, offering benefits such as clearing heat, detoxifying, alleviating rheumatism, reducing inflammation, stopping bleeding, and improving vision.

84. Cymbidium Goeringii

Cymbidium Goeringii

Cymbidium Goeringii, known as “Spring Orchid,” is a terrestrial herbaceous plant of the Orchidaceae family. Its pseudobulbs cluster together, and its narrow strap-like leaves grow in tufts, tapering to a point with fine serrations on the edges.

The flower stem stands upright, much shorter than the leaves. The bracts are long and broad. The flower, with a light yellow-green hue and a fresh fragrance, stands alone. The sepals are narrowly rectangular, sharply pointed at the tip with purplish-brown stripes at the base of the midrib.

The petals are ovate-lanceolate. The lip is a pale yellow with purplish-brown spots, curling at the tip. The column has broad wings on both sides, and the fruit is a narrow oval. It blooms from January to March.

Spring Orchid is native to China and is also found in southern Japan and the Korean Peninsula. It grows on mountain slopes, forest edges, within forests, under forested slopes, or beside streams.

Favoring cool, semi-shaded, and humid environments, it is cold-resistant, prefers well-draining, humus-rich, slightly acidic soil, and dislikes intense heat. Propagation is achieved through division.

The entire Spring Orchid plant is medicinal, known for its abilities to promote blood circulation, reduce tumors, clear heat, detoxify, expel worms, and replenish deficiencies.

Besides its high ornamental value, the Spring Orchid is effective in purifying indoor air by absorbing toxic chemicals such as formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide.

85. Cymbidium Hybridum

Cymbidium Hybridum

Cymbidium Hybridum, commonly known as “Large-Flowered Cymbidium,” is an evergreen epiphytic herbaceous plant of the Orchidaceae family. The pseudobulbs of the Large-Flowered Cymbidium are oval and robust. Its roots are mostly fleshy, cylindrical, thick, and predominantly grayish-white.

The leaves are broad, long, drooping, and have a glossy light green hue. Its floral stem grows at a slight angle and is somewhat curved. The flowers are large with vibrant colors, a faint fragrance, and come in various shades. Its fruit is a capsule, elongated like a rod.

Typically, its floral buds differentiate from June to October, and it blooms in the subsequent January to February.

With its long green leaves and flamboyant flower appearance, this orchid is a blend of the elegance of native orchids and the rich variety of exotic orchids, thus being hailed as a “new star among orchids” globally.

Originally, Large-Flowered Cymbidium hails from India and various Southeast Asian countries. In the wild, it is often found on the edges of streams and under forests in semi-shaded environments. It prefers a warm winter and cool summer.

When in bloom, it shouldn’t be placed in high temperatures or under intense light; otherwise, the flowers may wilt prematurely. This orchid is commonly propagated through tissue culture and division.

The color of the Large-Flowered Cymbidium has symbolic meanings: pink represents passion, white signifies deep affection, light green embodies ambition, and yellow indicates wishes for good fortune.

The orchid is fresh and elegant, transcending the ordinary with its delicate fragrance.

86. Cymbidium Lianpan

mbidium Lianpan

Cymbidium Lianpan, known as “Gold Sand Tree Orchid,” is a renowned tree-shaped variant among the Cymbidium species. Because of its beauty and late blooming season, it once fetched record-breaking prices.

Although its value has declined, it still remains more expensive than many other orchid varieties. Its floral stem is tall and towering, and when the buds are in the early stage, the entire stem has a pinkish hue.

The buds resemble round plum blossoms, growing upwards, with typically two flowers sprouting from one stem. These flowers are grand in appearance with a white base and red streaks, embodying characteristics of butterflies, uniqueness, plums, and tree shape.

87. Cymbidium Lowianum

Cymbidium Lowianum

The Cymbidium Lowianum, commonly referred to as the Jade Orchid, belongs to the orchid family and grows as an epiphyte. It has narrowly oval pseudobulbs that are somewhat flattened; its leaves are strap-shaped, tapering to a short point at the end.

The bracts are ovate-triangular and unscented, while the sepals and petals can be either green or yellow, highlighted by reddish-brown longitudinal veins. The lip petal is a light yellow with a deep red anchor or V-shaped blotch covered in fine hairs.

The sepals are narrow and inverted oval-long while the petals share a similar shape and are almost of equal length to the sepals. The lip petal is nearly broad-oval, with hairy side lobes, wings on either side, and a nub or short hair at the base of its ventral surface. This orchid typically blooms between April and May.

Native to China’s Yunnan province, the Jade Orchid also flourishes in countries like Myanmar and Thailand. It prefers semi-shaded environments, typically growing on trees in forests or on cliffs beside streams.

The Jade Orchid features striking purple-red blotches, making it exceptionally beautiful. It has been listed on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species and is classified as Endangered (EN).

88. Cymbidium Sinense

Cymbidium Sinense

The Cymbidium Sinense, also known as the Chinese New Year Orchid, is an orchid species that grows terrestrially. Its pseudobulbs are ovate and concealed within the base of its leaves. The leaves are strap-shaped, slightly leathery, and dark green.

Flowers emerge from the base of the pseudobulbs, standing upright and robust, generally slightly taller than the leaves. Their colors vary significantly, often appearing dark purple or purplish-brown with a lighter lip petal, though shades of yellow-green, peach-red, and white also exist.

These flowers typically have a strong fragrance. The sepals are narrowly long-oval or narrow-elliptical; the petals are nearly narrow-oval, and the lip petal is nearly ovate-long.

The column slightly curves forward, with narrow wings on its sides and four pollen masses, arranged in two pairs, which are broad-oval. Its fruit is a narrow elliptical capsule, and it usually blooms from October to March of the following year.

It thrives in shaded areas beneath forests, within shrublands, or beside moist stream valleys with good drainage, at altitudes ranging from 300 to 2000 meters. This orchid species is found in China, India, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, and the Ryukyu Islands.

89. Cymbidium Tortisepalum Fukuyama

Cymbidium Tortisepalum Fukuyama

The Cymbidium Tortisepalum Fukuyama, commonly known as the Lotus Petal Orchid, belongs to the orchid family. It features slender linear leaves that are relatively soft, slightly leathery, and arching, measuring between 35-60 centimeters in length and 0.4-0.6 centimeters in width.

At the base of the leaves, slightly enlarged pseudobulbs store water and nutrients. The roots are cylindrical, fleshy, 0.5-1 centimeter in diameter, and can grow between 20-40 centimeters long. Its flower spike doesn’t require support, with each stem bearing 2-4 flowers that measure 4-6 centimeters across.

The flowers are predominantly white, with subtle hints of red, yellow, or green. The sepals are triangular-lanceolate, and the petals are short, wide, inward-curving with varying intensities of red veins.

The lip petal is curled back and dotted with red. The flowers exude a delicate fragrance and bloom from December to March.

The wild Lotus Petal Orchid is primarily found in China. This region is characterized by significant altitude variations, distinct wet and dry seasons, clear vertical climate changes, high forest coverage, moist soil, and abundant nutrients.

The orchid frequently grows in grassy slopes or light-permeable forests or on the forest edges at altitudes ranging from 800-2500 meters. The growth process requires minimal light, soft, decomposed soil layers, good ventilation, and humid air.

The Lotus Petal Orchid is a traditional, renowned flower in China, celebrated for its rich colors, elegant shape, high germination rate, adaptability to various environments, and ease of flowering. It’s listed in the “Red List of China’s Biodiversity – Higher Plants Volume” as Vulnerable (VU).

90. Cynara Scolymus

Cynara Scolymus

The Cynara Scolymus, commonly known as the Artichoke, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the aster family. It has a robust, upright stem with ribs, entirely covered in dense cobweb-like hair or sparser hairs. All the stem leaves are long-oval or broad-lanceolate; the uppermost leaves are long-oval or linear.

The capitulum flower head is large, with the innermost bracts having a rigid membranous appendage. The florets display a purplish-red hue, with layers of green petals unfolding, reminiscent of a lotus seat. Its achene fruit is long-oval, with bristles resembling feathery hair.

Originally from the Mediterranean coast, the Artichoke is typically cultivated in Italy. It prefers a cool climate, tolerating heat and light frost but has limited cold resistance.

Artichokes are rich in cynarin, aspartic acid, and flavonoid compounds. Regular consumption offers benefits such as liver and kidney protection, enhanced liver detoxification, improved digestion, better blood circulation, prevention of arteriosclerosis, and cardiovascular protection.

91. Cypripedium Lichiangense

Cypripedium Lichiangense

The Lijiang Lady’s Slipper, Cypripedium Lichiangense, is a nationally protected plant belonging to the orchid family and the lady’s slipper genus. Standing at a height of around 10 cm, it features a robust, short rhizome.

The stem is upright, measuring 3-7 cm in length and is encased within two tubular sheaths, ending with two leaves at its top. The leaves are nearly opposite, ground-hugging, and can be ovate, inverted ovate, or nearly round.

Their upper surfaces are dark green with purple-black spots and occasionally have purple edges. The flower emerges at the top of the plant and is quite stunning and sizable. The sepals are dark yellow with dense liver-red spots or are entirely liver-red.

The petals and lip are also dark yellow but have slightly sparse liver-red spots. The petals are obliquely oblong, curving inward to encircle the lip, 4-6.5 cm long and 1.4-2.1 cm wide, tapering to a sharp tip.

The back of the petals is softly hairy, with edges fringed with hairs. The lip is deep, pouch-like, and nearly elliptical, flattened from front to back. Blooming occurs from May to July.

It thrives at altitudes of 2600-3500 meters in shrubs or open sparse woods and is native to China. This flower is cultivated and holds significant horticultural value.

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