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Narcissus pseudonarcissus: A Symphony of Spring Blooms

The Narcissus pseudonarcissus, also known as the Daffodil or Trumpet Narcissus, is a perennial herb from the Amaryllidaceae family. Its bulb is spherical, and it has upright, linear, blunt-tipped leaves. The flower stalk is approximately 30 centimeters tall and bears a flower at its tip. It has a spathaceous spathe and a conical perianth tube. […]

The Narcissus pseudonarcissus, also known as the Daffodil or Trumpet Narcissus, is a perennial herb from the Amaryllidaceae family. Its bulb is spherical, and it has upright, linear, blunt-tipped leaves.

The flower stalk is approximately 30 centimeters tall and bears a flower at its tip. It has a spathaceous spathe and a conical perianth tube. The perianth segments are oval and pale yellow.

The corona is slightly shorter or almost as long as the perianth, and the plant blooms in the spring. It originated in Western Europe and can be found in Spain, Portugal, Germany, England, and Wales, and it is cultivated in China.

The primary value of the Daffodil lies in its ornamental appeal. Its beautiful flowers are widely loved.

It blossoms in winter and early spring, producing large, brightly colored flowers, making it an excellent choice for potted plants and cut flowers for the New Year celebrations. When used to adorn windowsills, balconies, or living rooms, it brings an exceptional grace and elegance.

I. Physical Characteristics

Narcissus pseudonarcissus

The Daffodil is a perennial herb with a tunicated, ovoid bulb, measuring 2.5-3.5 centimeters in diameter. It has 4-6 leaves that stand upright, are linear in shape, and measure 25-40 centimeters in length and 8-15 millimeters in width.

The flower stalk is about 30 centimeters tall and bears a single flower at its tip. The spathaceous spathe measures 3.5-5 centimeters in length. The perianth tube is conical and measures 1.2-1.5 centimeters in length.

The perianth segments are oval and measure 2.5-3.5 centimeters in length, and are a pale yellow color. The corona is slightly shorter or nearly as long as the perianth. The plant blooms in the spring.

II. Growing Environment

Narcissus pseudonarcissus

Daffodils prefer a wet winter and a dry, hot summer. Therefore, during the root growth period in autumn and winter and the above-ground growth period in spring, the potted Daffodil requires plenty of water but should not be waterlogged.

Watering should gradually decrease after flowering, and the bulb should be kept dry during its dormant period. Daffodils are not particularly sensitive to light exposure. Besides requiring an abundance of sunlight during the leaf growth period, semi-shade is preferable during the flowering period.

If the plant does not get enough light for a long time during its growth period, the leaves will become elongated, soft, and droopy, but this will not significantly affect flowering. It thrives best in fertile, loose, well-draining, humus-rich, slightly acidic to slightly alkaline sandy loam.

III. Distribution Range

The Daffodil originated in Western Europe and is found in Spain, Portugal, Germany, England, and Wales. It is also cultivated in China. It grows in many gardens in Europe and can be found in the wild in forests, grasslands, and on rocky surfaces.

IV. Growth and Reproduction

Narcissus pseudonarcissus

Bulb division

The lateral buds in the bulb bulge to form smaller bulbs. In autumn, the bulbs are dug up and the smaller bulbs are separated for bulb division reproduction. The natural reproduction rate is 4-5 times.

The main bulb has a 100% blooming rate, and the smaller bulbs have a blooming rate of 80%-90%. The smaller bulbs need to be cultivated for 2-3 years to become blooming bulbs. To increase the reproduction coefficient, smaller bulbs can be artificially induced.

With a sharp knife, make 3-4 cross-cuts from the bulb plate to the top, the depth is about half the height of the bulb, so as not to damage the growth point of the shortened stem.

After cutting, invert the bulbs in clean dry sand to produce healing tissue, then place them in a 21°C propagation box and gradually increase the temperature to 30°C, with a relative humidity of 85%.

After about three months, most smaller bulbs have formed and can be removed for planting. The induced smaller bulbs need to be cultivated for 3-4 years to become blooming bulbs.

Seeding

Seeds are sown in mid-September. The soil for sowing is a mixture of leaf mold, peat and coarse sand, which is sterilized and then potted for sowing. After sowing, careful management is required.

Seedlings will appear the following spring, with one leaf. In early summer, the leaves and roots wither in turn, forming dormant little bulbs. These little bulbs need to be cultivated for 4-5 years to become blooming bulbs.

Tissue Culture

The bulb or bud tip, stem plate are used as explants. First, clean with detergent, then disinfect with 75% alcohol and 0.1% mercury for 30 minutes, and then rinse 3 times with sterile water.

Inoculate on MS culture medium supplemented with 2mg/L 2,4-D and 0.1mg/L kinetin. After half a month, transfer to a culture medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine 2mg/L and 1mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid.

After about 15 days, seedlings can be formed. Then transfer to a rooting culture medium supplemented with 1mg/L indolebutyric acid. After 10 days, rooted seedlings are formed, which will take 3 years to develop into blooming bulbs.

V. Pest Control

Narcissus pseudonarcissus

Root rot and nematode diseases often occur, which can be treated with 0.1% mercury for 30 minutes, and during the growing period, 79% of Carbendazim wettable powder diluted 700 times can be sprayed. Aphids and red spiders are pests that can be prevented and controlled by spraying with 40% Oxamyl 1000 times diluted.

VI. Main Value

The main value of Daffodils lies in the ornamental value of its flowers, which are beautiful and highly popular with the public.

They embellish windowsills, balconies, and living rooms, making them look particularly delicate and elegant. When placed on flower beds, landscapes, lawns, and along the edges of pools, they enhance the beauty of the early spring scenery.

Potted Daffodils in bloom should be kept within a temperature range of 5-12°C, with a light level of 2000-3000 Lux, and illuminated for 12-14 hours a day to maintain their commercial value for a long time.

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Peggie

Peggie

Founder of FlowersLib

Peggie was once a high school mathematics teacher, but she set aside her chalkboard and textbooks to follow her lifelong passion for flowers. After years of dedication and learning, she not only established a thriving flower shop but also founded this blog, “Flowers Library”. If you have any questions or wish to learn more about flowers, feel free to contact Peggie.

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