49 Flowers That Start With R

1. Rafflesia Arnoldii

Rafflesia Arnoldii

The Rafflesia Arnoldii, commonly known as the Corpse Flower, belongs to the fleshy parasitic herbaceous family and genus. It parasitizes the roots, stems, or branches of plants, devoid of chlorophyll.

Its nutrient-absorbing organs have evolved into mycelium-like structures that infiltrate the host’s tissues. Its leaves have either degenerated into scales or disappeared entirely.

The flowers typically grow singularly, though occasionally in a spiky arrangement, exhibiting radial symmetry and are either unisexual or bisexual. The fruit is a berry with tiny seeds encased in a tough coat, equipped with an endosperm.

The Corpse Flower boasts a magnificent and unique appearance, housing the largest known bloom in the scientific community. Its pungent odor, reminiscent of decaying flesh, has earned its reputation as the world’s smelliest flower.

Found in regions from the southeast to the southwest, it thrives in tropical and subtropical areas.

The Corpse Flower is more akin to fungi. Lacking chlorophyll, it doesn’t photosynthesize. To nourish itself, it forms filamentous tissues with vines, drawing moisture and nutrients from them.

Due to extensive deforestation of tropical rainforests driven by human activity and the Corpse Flower’s long life but short blooming period, it is now endangered.

2. Ranunculus Asiaticus

Ranunculus Asiaticus

The Ranunculus Asiaticus, or Asian Buttercup, is a perennial herb from the Ranunculus family. Standing 20-50 centimeters tall, it possesses a spindle-shaped tuberous root with a singular stem or occasional branches.

The base leaves, resembling celery, are long-stalked, while the stem leaves are smaller and nearly stalkless.

Single or multiple flowers bloom at the stem’s peak in red, white, orange, and purple hues, either double or semi-double, during April and May. The name ‘Ranunculus’ originates from Latin, reflecting the plant’s preference for wet habitats.

Native to southwestern Asia, centered around Turkey, and southeastern Europe, the Asian Buttercup thrives in cooler climates, favoring light but also tolerating shade. It fears extreme heat and prefers well-draining sandy soil rich in organic matter.

When potted, it requires sandy soil with excellent permeability and rich fertility. Reproduction methods include dividing its bulb, seeding, and tissue culture propagation.

The Asian Buttercup is poisonous. Touch can lead to inflammation and blistering. It’s not edible as consumption can cause diarrhea and a slow pulse.

3. Rehmannia Glutinosa

Rehmannia Glutinosa

The Rehmannia Glutinosa, commonly known as Chinese Foxglove, is a perennial herb from the Rehmanniaceae family. The fleshy rootstock is yellow when fresh.

The stem has a purplish-red hue, while its leaves are ovate to oblong, green on top and slightly purple or purplish-red underneath, with irregular round or blunt serrated edges.

The flowers either rise or curve, loosely arranged in a racemose inflorescence on the stem top or singularly in leaf axils, blooming from April to July. The fruit, present during the same period, is ovate to oblong.

In Southeast Asian countries, the “Four Major Huai Medicines” are exchanged as precious gifts. Countries like Japan and the UK refer to these as “Hua Medicine.”

Rehmannia can be classified into fresh and dried variants. Historical pharmacopeias and medical records suggest that the fresh variant is superior in hemostasis and fluid production.

The dried Rehmannia has the ability to cool the blood, nourish the yin, and produce fluids. It can be used in natural floral arrangements.

4. Renanthera Coccinea

Renanthera Coccinea

The Renanthera Coccinea, known as Flame Orchid, is an epiphytic herbaceous plant from the Orchidaceae family. Its stem is hard and cylindrical, with tongue-shaped or oblong leaves.

The conical or racemose inflorescence bears numerous fiery red flowers. The petals, resembling the medial sepal but smaller, are nearly round with orange specks on the inner edge, flowering from April to June.

Due to its vibrant fiery hue, which appears as flames from a distance, it’s aptly named the “Flame Orchid.”

The Flame Orchid is native to China and can also be found in countries like Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam.

It thrives in warm, humid conditions and grows well in full or partial sunlight. It’s heat-tolerant, not cold-resistant, and prefers a loose, breathable substrate. Propagation is typically by cuttings.

The entire Flame Orchid plant is used to treat fractures. With its striking red blooms, the potted Flame Orchid serves as an elegant interior decoration.

It can also be epiphytically grown on tree trunks or rocks for ornamental purposes and is a splendid material for cut flowers.

The Flame Orchid is a nationally protected plant and is listed as Endangered (EN) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Among the Orchidaceae, it’s a rare endangered tropical species with immense ornamental value, often referred to as the “Panda of the Plant World.”

5. Rhipsalidopsis Gaertneri

Rhipsalidopsis Gaertneri

The Rhipsalidopsis Gaertneri, commonly known as the Easter Cactus, is an epiphytic succulent plant from the cactus family. Its stems are flattened, fleshy, and dark green, edged with a hint of purple.

The shallow, round teeth have short white hairs and a few yellow bristles at their base. Flowers grow radially in a deep red hue at the end of the stems, with broadly extending lanceolate petals.

Stamens are only present in one set, attached to the inner wall of the short flower tube, while the column is red with a cream-colored stigma. The fruit is red.

The Easter Cactus is native to the tropics of South America. It favors a warm, humid environment, is averse to direct sunlight, and thrives in well-draining, slightly acidic, sandy soil enriched with organic matter. Propagation primarily involves cuttings and grafting.

The Easter Cactus is an attractive plant with dense flowers, suitable for potting on balconies, windowsills, and tables. It’s a popular indoor potted plant in Europe and the USA.

Being a plant from the CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) pathway, it also releases oxygen, enhancing air freshness. The Easter Cactus is often referred to as the “Easter Cactus.”

6. Rhododendron

Rhododendron

The Rhododendron, or Azalea, is a deciduous shrub from the Rhododendron family, growing 2-5 meters tall with many slender branches.

The leaves are leathery, often clustered at the branch ends, egg-shaped, oval or inverted egg-shaped, with tips that gradually narrow and slightly rolled edges with fine teeth. The upper surface is dark green, while the underside is pale white.

The flowers, usually appearing in clusters of 2-6 at the branch tops, are broad funnel-shaped or inverted egg-shaped in shades of rose, bright red, or dark red, blooming from April to May, with the fruiting period from June to August.

Rhododendrons are widespread across Europe, Asia, and North America, predominantly in East and Southeast Asia. They prefer acidic, fertile soil and thrive in shaded, cool, warm environments. Evergreen azaleas flourish in humid and cool mountainous regions.

The Azalea is one of China’s three major naturally occurring renowned flowers and one of the world’s four major alpine flowers, playing a significant role in forest vegetation.

Azaleas have a broad range of medicinal value: their sour and sweet taste can activate blood circulation and regulate menstruation, treating bruises, injuries, and rheumatoid arthritis. With its vibrant red corolla, the azalea has high ornamental value.

Furthermore, it can detect toxic gases; when the air contains sulfur dioxide or nitrogen monoxide, azalea leaves develop spots and start wilting at the edges.

Azaleas symbolize people’s fervent and beautiful feelings towards life, also representing national prosperity, strength, and the happiness of the people.

7. Rhododendron Anthopogonoides

烈香

The Rhododendron Anthopogonoides, also known as “Liet Xiang,” is a fragrant variety cultivated by Mr. J.R. Finlay of New Zealand from the crossbreed of the “Mrs. Ham’s” red tea plant with a hybrid of “Sela Bar” and “Sweet Scented Water.”

It was introduced in 1986. The flower is a pale pink that deepens to dark red towards the petal edges, with approximately 30 large petals.

Occasionally, some of the stamens might become petal-like. The anthers are golden yellow and the filaments are milky white.

The flower is medium-sized, with a diameter of 9-10 cm, semi-double to peony-type, and emits a strong fragrance. Its leaves are gray-green, thin, with blunt teeth. It has a vigorous growth habit and blooms from February to April.

8. Rhododendron Aureum

Rhododendron Aureum

The Rhododendron Aureum, commonly known as the “Golden Leatherleaf Rhododendron,” is an evergreen dwarf shrub, growing 10-50 cm in height. Its stems grow horizontally with ascending side branches and persistent bud scales.

The leaves are leathery, usually with 4-5 gathered at the tip of the twig, in an inverted lanceolate or oblong-ovate shape. The top is dark green, while the underside is pale green. The flowers grow in a terminal umbel, consisting of 5-8 blooms.

The corolla is bell-shaped, measuring 2.5-3 cm in length, pale yellow, with 5 lobes. The lobes are nearly circular, slightly unequal in size, with one upper lobe exhibiting red spots.

The fruit is an elongated cylinder. It flowers from May to June, and the fruiting period is from July to September.

This plant thrives in alpine meadows or on moss layers at elevations between 1000-2506 meters. It is found in China, Russia, Mongolia, North Korea, and Japan. This species is cultivated and holds significant economic value.

9. Rhododendron Dauricum

Rhododendron Dauricum

The Rhododendron dauricum, commonly known as the Dahurian Rhododendron, is a semi-evergreen shrub belonging to the Rhododendron family and genus, reaching up to 2 meters in height with many branches. The leaves are nearly leathery, either oval or elongated oval.

Flowers emerge in pink or purplish-red hues, with both anthers and the column being purplish-red. The fruit is elongated oval, flowering between May and June, and fruiting in July.

It is found in the regions of Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, and eastern mountainous areas of Liaoning in China, as well as Mongolia, Japan, North Korea, and Russia. It typically grows under deciduous pine and birch forests or at the forest’s edge.

The Dahurian Rhododendron’s flowers are ornamental, while its leaves can be used to extract fragrant oils for perfume.

It also has medicinal properties, characterized by its cold and bitter nature, used for its antitussive and expectorant effects. The stems, branches, and fruits contain tannins and can be used to produce tannic acid.

10. Rhododendron Decorum

Rhododendron Dauricum

The Rhododendron Decorum, or the Great White Rhododendron, is an evergreen shrub from the Rhododendron family and genus, growing up to 5 meters tall. Its young branches are green and hairless, while the leaves are thick, leathery, elongated oval, or circular inverted oval.

The inflorescences are umbrella-shaped, bearing flowers with a broad funnel-like shape and a densely glandular ovary. The fruit is an elongated cylinder, with the flowering period between April and June, and fruiting between September and October.

The Great White Rhododendron is native to China and is also found in northeastern Myanmar. It grows best in elevations between 1000-4000 meters, within shrubs or under forests. It prefers humid conditions and slightly acidic, well-draining, loose soil.

The optimum growth temperature is between 15°C and 25°C. Propagation methods include seeding, cuttings, and grafting.

The roots and leaves of the Great White Rhododendron have medicinal applications. They are spicy and neutral, known for promoting blood circulation and relieving pain.

It’s used to treat white discharge, leucorrhea, rheumatic pain, and injuries from falls. Its flowers are large and beautiful, and when in bloom, they’re prolific.

Though only sparsely introduced into gardens, they can be planted for ornamental purposes under sparse woods, beside roads, rocks, and riverbanks.

11. Rhododendron Degronianum

Rhododendron Degronianum

The Rhododendron Degronianum, known as the Snow Mountain Rose, is a type of white rose. Its flowers exhibit a hue between pale green and white.

As a high-end variety within the white roses, the Snow Mountain Rose is a relatively new breed. Its English name is “Avalanche.” It is cultivated in Yunnan and Taiwan in China.

The flower is pristine, displaying a white color with a subtle hint of green, and is well-formed. The Snow Mountain Rose symbolizes purity, nobility, and innocence.

12. Rhododendron Fortunei

Rhododendron Fortunei

The Rhododendron Fortunei, commonly referred to as the Cloud Brocade Rhododendron, is an evergreen shrub or small tree belonging to the Rhododendron family and genus. It can grow up to 12 meters tall.

The branches and twigs are stout, yellow-green in color, and initially glandular. The leaves are leathery, either elongated oval or oblong-oval, with a blunt tip and a base that’s round, flat, or nearly heart-shaped. They are hairless on both sides, dark green, and glossy on the upper surface.

The leaf stalk is cylindrical, 2-4 cm in length, with sparse glandular spots. The flower corolla is funnel-shaped and pink, sparsely glandular outside, with a cone-shaped ovary densely covered in glandules.

The fruit is an elongated oval and rough in texture. It blooms from April to May, and fruits from August to October.

The Cloud Brocade Rhododendron is native to China. It thrives on sunny ridges or under forests at altitudes between 620-2000 meters. Preferring a mild climate, it’s cold-hardy and should be protected from winds and shaded, especially from the north and west. It propagates through seeding.

The Cloud Brocade Rhododendron has large, light rose or red flowers with a pleasant fragrance, making it an excellent ornamental plant for gardens.

13. Rhododendron Indicum

Rhododendron Latoucheae

The Rhododendron Indicum, commonly known as the Gao Yue Azalea, is a semi-evergreen shrub belonging to the Rhododendron family. It grows between 1-2 meters tall.

The young twigs are densely covered with reddish-brown coarse hair, which fades over time. The leaves are narrow lanceolate or reverse lanceolate, finely serrated at the edges, and have faintly visible side veins.

Both sides of the leaves are sparsely covered with reddish-brown coarse hair. The flower buds are either ovate or broad ovate, and the flowers are bright red or rose-red with a broad funnel shape. The fruit is elongated and ovate.

The Gao Yue Azalea is known to bloom when the cuckoo sings, and it’s said that the blood from the cuckoo stains the flowers red, leading it to be colloquially called “Cuckoo.”

The Gao Yue Azalea is native to India and Japan but is widely cultivated throughout China. It is shade-tolerant, prefers a cool environment, and thrives in well-draining, moist, humus-rich acidic soil. Propagation is typically through seeding or cuttings.

The Gao Yue Azalea’s flowers are spicy in taste, warm in nature, and are toxic. They possess medicinal properties that dispel wind, remove dampness, alleviate pain, and exterminate insects.

It can be used to treat rheumatic pain, migraines, swellings from falls, toothaches, persistent skin diseases, and sores.

With its profuse and beautiful blooms, strong germination capacity, and tolerance for pruning, it’s suitable for planting on lawns, forest edges, riverbanks, pond sides, and rocky areas.

Internationally, azaleas symbolize the “joy of love.” Therefore, gifting azaleas can convey a special meaning. However, in Chinese culture, the phrase “cuckoo bleeds” implies a sense of bad omen, leading some to avoid gifting or planting them.

14. Rhododendron Latoucheae

Rhododendron Latoucheae

The Rhododendron latoucheae, known as the Deer Antler Azalea, is an evergreen shrub or small tree belonging to the Rhododendron family. It can grow up to 7 meters tall. Its twigs are slender and hairless. The leaves are oval or elongated lanceolate.

The flower buds are conical, with persistent scales, and the fruit is cylindrical. The seeds have short appendages at both ends. It blooms between March and June and fruits from July to October.

The Deer Antler Azalea is found in various parts of China and typically grows at altitudes between 1000-2000 meters in mixed forests, as well as on slopes, hills, and among shrubs.

The roots and flower buds of the Deer Antler Azalea are used medicinally. They are sweet and sour in taste and warm in nature.

They have properties that dispel wind, alleviate pain, clear heat, detoxify, remove dampness, and invigorate the blood. They can be used to treat rheumatic bone pain, lung abscesses, hemorrhage, eczema, boils, and other infections.

15. Rhododendron Lutescens

Rhododendron Lutescens

Rhododendron Lutescens, commonly known as Yellow Azalea, is an evergreen shrub belonging to the Rhododendron family. The young branches are slender with sparse scales. Leaves are dispersed, paper-like in texture, and lanceolate in shape with a pointed tip.

The leaf stalk has sparse scales. Flowers bloom at the top or the axils of the top leaves, densely covered in scales, with no margin hair or occasional margin hair. The flower’s corolla is broad funnel-shaped and yellow in color. The flower blooms between March and April.

Another name for Yellow Azalea is “Three Qian Three” because of its high toxicity. If the dosage of its root exceeds three qian (around 11.25 grams), it can cause severe poisoning.

Yellow Azalea is native to China and is commonly found in moist mixed forests or in shrubs on limestone slopes.

The roots and flowers of the Yellow Azalea are used medicinally. They are spicy in taste and warm in nature. They are known to reduce swelling, eliminate dampness, kill parasites, and relieve pain and itching. They can treat rheumatoid arthritis, injuries from falls, and malaria.

However, its flowers contain toxins. Direct contact or inhalation is not advised. Ingesting even a small amount can result in poisoning, leading to symptoms such as vomiting, difficulty in breathing, and numbness in limbs. In severe cases, it can cause shock and be life-threatening.

16. Rhododendron Molle

Rhododendron Molle

Rhododendron molle, also known as Soft Azalea, is a deciduous shrub that grows between 0.5-2 meters tall. The branches are sparse, and young branches are densely covered with grayish-white soft hairs and sparse stiff hairs.

The leaves are papery, ranging from oval to lanceolate, and are covered in soft hairs. The inflorescence is an umbrella-shaped cluster at the top, with up to 13 flowers that bloom either before or simultaneously with the leaves.

The flower’s corolla is broad funnel-shaped, yellow or golden yellow with deep red spots inside. The fruit is conical and elongated with five longitudinal ribs, covered with soft and sparse stiff hairs. It blooms between March and May and bears fruit between July and August.

This plant grows on hillside grasslands or in shrubs or mixed forests on ridges, up to an altitude of 1000 meters. It is native to China, with a subspecies found in Japan.

The Soft Azalea’s flowers are beautiful and vividly colored. It also has significant medicinal value but is notably one of the well-known toxic plants. It’s used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and injuries from falls.

It’s widely cultivated and serves as the parent of numerous azalea horticultural varieties, giving it significant economic value.

17. Rhododendron Mucronulatum

Rhododendron Mucronulatum

Rhododendron Mucronulatum, commonly known as Korean Rhododendron, is a deciduous shrub from the Rhododendron family.

New branches grow below the flower bud axils, and the twigs are slender with sparse scales. Leaves are dispersed, paper-like in texture, elongated oval or lanceolate in shape. The margins of the leaves are slightly wavy.

The top surface of young leaves has minute hairs along the veins, sparsely covered with white scales, while the bottom is light green, also sparsely covered in scales. The flower calyx is small, and the corolla is light reddish-purple, wide funnel-shaped, with its exterior having minute hairs.

The petals have wavy edges. The filament’s base has hair, and the ovary is densely covered with scales. The pistil is longer than the corolla.

The fruit is a cylindrical, dark brown capsule densely covered with scales. It blooms between April and June, with the fruiting period from May to July.

Korean Rhododendron is native to China and can also be found in Mongolia, Japan, North Korea, and Russia. It frequently grows in mountainous shrubs between altitudes of 300–900 meters and on rocky outcrops.

The plant loves light, is cold-resistant, drought-tolerant, and can thrive in poor soil. It can be propagated by seeding, cutting, or dividing.

Medicinally, Korean Rhododendron tastes bitter and is neutral in nature. It has properties to release exterior symptoms, reduce phlegm, relieve cough, and stabilize asthma.

It’s used to treat common cold headaches, coughs, asthma, and bronchitis. Its flowers have a strong fragrance and can be used to extract aromatic oils. The whole plant can be used as green manure.

18. Rhododendron Obtusum

Rhododendron Obtusum

Rhododendron Obtusum, commonly referred to as the Hiryu Azalea, is a shrub species from the Rhododendron family. It’s an evergreen shrub with multiple branches. Mature leaves are ovate, while the spring leaves are elliptic-lanceolate and sharply pointed.

The top of the leaves is glossy, and the back has hairs along the midrib. The flowers are bright red with a slight fragrance, having a funnel-shaped corolla that blooms between April and May.

Hiryu Azalea is originally from Japan and is a renowned cultivated species in the Rhododendron genus with numerous variants and horticultural breeds. It prefers slightly acidic soil, warm and humid climates, and is sensitive to high temperatures and direct sunlight.

The typical method of propagation is through cuttings. Hiryu Azalea is often planted for ornamental purposes in gardens or parks, and it can also be potted or used for bonsai.

19. Rhododendron Pulchrum

Rhododendron Pulchrum

Rhododendron Pulchrum, often referred to as the “Exquisite Rhododendron”, belongs to the Rhododendron family and genus. It’s a semi-evergreen shrub, growing between 1.5-2.5 meters in height.

Its branches spread out and are pale gray-brown in color, covered in light brown, rough hairs lying flat against them.

The leaves are thin-leathery, ranging from elliptic-oblong to lanceolate or oblong lanceolate in shape. They have blunt tips, a wedge-shaped base, and rolled edges.

The upper surface of the leaves is dark green, while the leaf stalks, measuring 3-6mm in length, are densely covered with brown rough hairs. The flower buds are ovate, with scales that have light yellow-brown hairs in the middle, and they exude a sticky substance.

Flowers emerge in an umbrella-like cluster at the top, with 1-5 flowers per cluster. The flower stalk is 0.8-1.5cm long, densely covered with light yellow-brown soft hairs. The fruit is oblong-ovate, 0.8-1cm long, and covered in bristly rough hairs.

The calyx of the flower remains on the fruit. It blooms between April and May, with fruiting occurring between September and October.

This species is native to China. It thrives in warm, semi-shaded, cool, moist, and well-ventilated environments. It’s intolerant to direct sunlight and high temperatures.

The Exquisite Rhododendron prefers loose, fertile, slightly acidic soil rich in organic matter, while alkaline and heavy clayey soils are unsuitable. Proper drainage is essential, and stagnant water is detrimental.

Apart from its ornamental value, the Exquisite Rhododendron has multiple uses. Its dense and hard wood can be utilized for farming tools, walking sticks, and carving. Its roots and leaves have medicinal properties.

The roots can act as a diuretic, bone setter, and relieve rheumatic pain and abdominal pain due to trauma. The leaves can act as a hemostatic agent. In India, the fruit is used to treat abscesses, ulcers, tumors, skin diseases, hemorrhoids, rashes, rheumatism, and bronchitis.

Essential oils can be extracted from its leaves and flowers. Certain varieties have edible flowers, and the bark and leaves can be used to make adhesives. With its well-developed root system, it’s ideal for soil and water conservation in mountainous regions.

20. Rhododendron Radendum

Rhododendron Radendum

Rhododendron Radendum, known as the “Hairy Rhododendron”, is a semi-evergreen shrub within the Rhododendron family. It can reach heights of 2-5 meters. Young branches are densely covered with light brown flat, rough hairs.

The leaves are either elliptical or lanceolate. The flower bud scales have light yellow-brown hairs along the middle. The flower corolla is funnel-shaped, rose-colored, with deep purplish-red spots. The fruit is an elongated oval shape. It blooms between April and May, with fruiting occurring between September and October.

This species is found in provinces like Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Jiangxi in China. It prefers cool, moist environments with abundant sunlight and is suitable for mass planting due to its ornamental appeal.

21. Rhododendron Russatum

Rhododendron Russatum

Rhododendron Russatum: This is an evergreen dwarf shrub that sometimes forms a mat or semi-prostrate shape, with a height ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 meters. The young branches are densely covered with light brown stalked scales, and the leaf buds lose their scales early.

The leaves are leathery and can be elliptical, oblong, or ovate. They are gray-green or dark green on top, with varied colors underneath. Flowers form an umbellate cluster at the top that resembles a globe, consisting of 6-10 flowers.

The flower corolla is broad and funnel-shaped, measuring 13-20mm in length and can be purple-blue, indigo, purple, or rose-colored. The fruit is ovate. It blooms between May and June, with the fruiting period between July and August.

This rhododendron is found on rocky slopes, cliffs, forest edges, hillside grasslands, alpine meadows, and within high-altitude rhododendron thickets in China. It also grows in Myanmar.

Because of its beautiful and vibrant flowers, it has been cultivated artificially, leading to a variety of hybrid varieties. It holds significant horticultural value.

22. Rhododendron Simiarum

Rhododendron Simiarum

Rhododendron Simiarum: Commonly known as the “Monkey-head Rhododendron”, this plant belongs to the Rhododendron family and genus and is an evergreen shrub. It can grow between 2 to 5 meters in height.

The young branches have smooth bark in a pale brown color, while the older branches have peeling bark in a pale gray or gray-white hue.

The leaves range from ovate-lanceolate to elliptical-lanceolate, are thick and leathery, dark green on top, hairless, and covered with a thin layer of pale brown or pale gray hairs beneath.

The terminal inflorescence is umbellate, usually bearing 5-9 flowers that are milky white to pink. The fruit is elongated-oval. It blooms from April to May, with the fruiting period extending from July to September.

This species is native to the southwestern part of East China, south of Hunan, and the Guangdong region. It thrives in altitudes between 500 to 1600 meters, in valleys and on slopes within broad-leaved forests.

It prefers cool, moist climates, acidic soil rich in organic matter, and mixed forests. Propagation methods include seed sowing, cuttings, grafting, or layering.

Monkey-head Rhododendron forests, like the “Ten-mile Rhododendron Corridor” in Jinggang Mountain, are a sight to behold during the blooming season. With white flowers and green leaves, they offer a bright and refreshing color palette.

The fragrant flowers are a treat to the senses and are highly valued for their ornamental qualities, which can boost the development of forest tourism.

23. Rhodomyrtus Tomentosa

Rhodomyrtus Tomentosa

Rhodomyrtus Tomentosa: Also known as the Downy Rose Myrtle, this plant belongs to the Myrtaceae family and can grow up to 2 meters in height. The young branches are densely covered with soft hairs. The leaves are oppositely arranged, elliptical or ovate.

Flowers are purple-red, usually singular, and come with long stems. The fruit is a berry, ovate, and turns purplish-black when ripe. The flowering period is during April and May.

There’s a folklore regarding its name, where during war times, people fleeing from conflict sought refuge in the mountains and consumed this fruit for sustenance.

To commemorate this survival tale, it was called “escape ration”, which over time and through misinterpretations became “peach myrtle”.

Originally from the hills around the Mediterranean and the Middle East, the Downy Rose Myrtle thrives in warm and humid environments. It ceases to grow at temperatures below 10°C and can’t survive winter frosts.

It’s an indicator plant for acidic soils and often grows in hilly areas with red soil, or on grassy slopes. While it primarily propagates through seeds, cuttings from the current year can also be used.

In traditional medicine, it’s believed to nourish and stop bleeding and is used to treat conditions like blood deficiency, vomiting blood, nosebleeds, and injuries resulting in bleeding. Its pigment has good light and heat stability, making it a promising natural colorant.

There’s also a legend that this was the sacred tree of Aphrodite, earning it the nickname “Wood of the Love Goddess”. Romans used it as a decorative piece for wedding feasts.

24. Rhus Typhina

Rhus Typhina

Rhus Typhina: Commonly known as the Staghorn Sumac, this is a deciduous shrub or small tree from the Anacardiaceae family. It can grow tall but has an irregular shape. Its branches are sturdy, reddish-brown, and densely covered with velvety hairs.

The leaves are long, elliptical-lanceolate, with sharp serrated edges. The plant is dioecious with flowers being white in color.

The fruits are deep red, densely covered with hairs, and cluster to form a shape resembling a torch. It blooms from June to July and bears fruit from September to October. The plant gets its name, “torch tree”, due to the torch-like appearance of its clustered fruits.

The Staghorn Sumac is native to North America but can also be found in various parts of Europe, Asia, and Oceania. It’s a sun-loving species but can tolerate shade, and it prefers moist sandy soils.

While it’s found in valleys, riverbanks, and swampy areas, it can also tolerate dry and infertile soils, even growing on rocky slopes.

The plant does not tolerate saline-alkali soils. It’s winter-hardy but does not fare well in waterlogged conditions. Propagation can be through seeds or suckering.

In terms of applications, the leaves contain tannins and the seeds have wax, which can be used for industrial purposes.

The bright red appearance of its inflorescences and fruits gives it high ornamental value, making it a prime choice for beautifying roadsides, residential areas, parks, and school campuses.

Economically, the fruit contains citric acid, which can be used for beverages. The wood is yellow, with a dense and attractive grain, suitable for carving and crafting.

25. Rieger Begonias

Rieger Begonias

Rieger Begonias are a type of plant belonging to the begonia family. They are horticultural hybrids created by German breeders, resulting from a cross between tuberous begonias and a wild species native to Central Asia.

These perennials often grow less than 40 centimeters in height. They don’t have a prominently enlarged underground section, but instead display a semi-tuberous appearance with fibrous roots.

The stems are fleshy, juicy, and easily breakable, growing upright or slightly drooping. Their leaves are alternate, ovate to heart-shaped, and end in a sharp tip.

Flowers, which can vary greatly in shape, bloom in clusters and come in a variety of colors, such as red, white, yellow, orange, and pink, in both single and double petal variations. They flower from fall to winter.

Originally from Germany, they have been cultivated in southern China. Rieger Begonias prefer warm climates, are averse to strong sunlight, and enjoy moist conditions, though they cannot tolerate flooding.

Avoid direct watering and ensure proper drainage during rainy seasons. They thrive in loose, fertile soil, with an ideal temperature range of 16-30°C.

Rieger Begonias are widely cultivated for their flowers. With a multitude of varieties and rich colors, they’re mainly used for indoor pot cultivation, hanging planting, or even for lining pathways and edges of lawns. They also make a fine choice for flower beds and terraces.

26. Robinia Pseudoacacia

Robinia Pseudoacacia

Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia) is a deciduous tree belonging to the pea family. Its bark is grayish-brown, deeply fissured, but sometimes smooth.

The branches have thorns, and the leaves are pinnately compound, usually oval or egg-shaped. Its flowers are fragrant, blooming from April to June.

The fruit is an elongated pod, brown or with reddish-brown streaks, maturing from August to September. The seeds are kidney-shaped, with a round hilum situated to one side.

Native to North America, the Black Locust was introduced from the West, leading locals to sometimes refer to it as the “Western Locust”. Due to the thorns on its petiole, it’s called “thorny locust”.

The tree is highly adaptable to various climate conditions, from dry and cool climates to drought and poor soil. It can be cultivated in neutral, acidic, and slightly alkaline soils and loves sunlight. Known for its rapid propagation, there’s a saying: “One tree in a year, a cluster in two, a slope in three.”

Black Locust’s roots are shallow but expansive, making it prone to toppling in strong winds. However, its adaptability allows it to play a vital role in sand fixation and soil conservation. Its hard and durable wood is resistant to rot, making it suitable for railway ties and vehicles.

Growing rapidly and sprouting vigorously, it’s a prime choice for firewood forests and is also a prime source of nectar for honeybees.

Moreover, Black Locust exhibits strong resistance to pollutants like sulfur dioxide, chlorine, and photochemical smog. It also has a high capacity to absorb lead vapors.

27. Rosa Banksiae

Rosa Banksiae

Rosa Banksiae, commonly known as Lady Banks’ Rose, is a climbing shrub that can grow up to 6 meters in height. Its twigs are cylindrical, hairless, with small thorns. The leaves usually come in groups of 3 to 5, are elliptical to lanceolate in shape, with small flowers that grow in umbrella-like clusters.

The sepals are ovate, and the petals can be fully double to semi-double in nature. They are white, ovate, and bloom from April to May. They commonly grow near streams, roadsides, or on hillside shrubs, at altitudes ranging from 500 to 1,300 meters.

This species is native to the provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan in China, though it is cultivated throughout the country. The flowers contain aromatic oils, which can be used in the production of perfumes and cosmetics.

It’s a famous ornamental plant, suitable for hedges and trellises. Both its root and leaves have medicinal properties, known to have astringent effects, alleviate diarrhea, and stop bleeding.

28. Rosa Chinensis

Rosa Chinensis

Rosa Chinensis, or the Chinese Rose, belongs to the rose family and is an evergreen or semi-evergreen low shrub. Its leaves are pinnate, with a glossy deep green top and a whitish-green underside. They’re hairless and come with small stipules.

The flowers can be single or double-petaled, with the double ones having a deep red hue similar to roses. While red is the primary color, they can also be found in white, yellow, pink, and rose-red shades.

The rose hip, or fruit, is oval or pear-shaped and turns red when ripe. They naturally bloom from April to September. These roses are named for their ability to bloom throughout all seasons, earning them the titles of “Monthly Red” and “Eternal Spring Flower.”

China is one of the native lands of the Chinese Rose. They are hardy plants, tolerant to both cold and drought, and are not particularly demanding about the soil type, though they prefer slightly acidic sandy loam rich in organic matter with good drainage.

They thrive in sunny, warm, and humid climates, with an ideal growth temperature range of 22 to 25°C. Propagation can be achieved through seeds or cuttings.

The Chinese Rose is believed to stimulate blood circulation, reduce swelling, and detoxify. Particularly praised for its ability to invigorate the blood and reduce fatigue, it’s considered an excellent remedy in gynecology.

29. Rosa Chinensis

Rosa Chinensis

Green Sepal Rosa Chinensis: This variety has moderately upright branches. It grows to a height of 60-120 cm and spreads to a width of 60-90 cm. The flowers are distinctive due to their green hue. They are scentless and have an average diameter of 5 cm.

The flowers bloom in clusters, resembling the typical form of roses in full bloom. They repeat their flowering across multiple seasons.

The Green Sepal Rosa Chinensis is believed to be a very rare variety among the existing ancient Chinese roses. Records of its cultivation trace back to as early as 1743. It’s a variant of the Chinese rose.

Due to its unique green sepals and uncommon flower color, propagation and cultivation have historically been challenging, making it a rare species among roses.

Many rose gardens and botanical institutions have preserved this variety, often considering it a treasure of their collection. It often receives awards when exhibited in various rose shows.

30. Rosa Chinensis Jacq.

Rosa Chinensis Jacq.

Juice Balcony Rosa chinensis Jacq. is a miniature rose variety bred in the Netherlands. The Juice Balcony boasts numerous advantages, including a long flowering period for its single blooms, large flowers that change colors, and consistent flowering.

It can be comfortably planted in pots as small as 15-20 cm, making it one of the most favored varieties for urban balconies. Despite its small stature, it requires substantial sunlight. It’s essential to ensure it receives ample light during cultivation.

However, during intense summer mid-days, it might need shading to protect it from the excessively strong sunlight.

31. Rosa Chinensis Jacq.

Rosa Chinensis Jacq.

Silver Jubilee Rosa chinensis Jacq. belongs to the Rosa genus of the Rosaceae family. It was named in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II’s ascension to the British throne.

This variety is an upright shrub rose with green leaves. Its large flowers are semi-globular, sitting atop the foliage, and display a salmon-pink hue with the undersides of the petals tinted gold. They bloom continuously from summer to early autumn.

The plant has a robust growth habit and forms a well-structured shrub. The flowers give off a pleasant aroma, reminiscent of lemons and raspberries.

The Silver Jubilee variety is cold-resistant and sheds its leaves annually. It thrives in moist soil with good drainage. Within 2-5 years, it can achieve a mature height of 1.1 to 1.5 meters.

32. Rosa Chinensis ‘Cai Yun’

Rosa Chinensis 'Cai Yun’

Cai Yun Rosa Chinensis ‘Cai Yun’: This is a hybrid tea rose. The Cai Yun Rosa Chinensis belongs to the hybrid tea roses and was introduced in Japan in 1980. What sets it apart are its bicolor petals: deep pink on the front, which intensifies in red hues as the flower blooms, and a golden yellow on the backside.

The flower is large with about 45 petals and is not fragrant. The plant grows upright, is tolerant to pruning, prefers heavy fertilization, and boasts strong disease resistance. It’s also sun-tolerant. Grafting is the suitable method for its propagation.

33. Rosa Chinensis Minima

Rosa Chinensis Minima

Miniature Rose Rosa Chinensis : This is a prickly shrub and falls under a category within the modern roses. Its defining characteristics include a height less than 20 cm, upright branches, pinnate compound leaves, short stems, small leaves, and bright, small flowers.

These flowers bloom at the tips of the branches and have a robust recurring bloom ability. This miniature rose, with a plant height not exceeding 20 cm, has small leaves and stems.

The roses it produces are tiny but vividly colored. They bloom profusely and are especially suitable for household pot plants. When placed in living rooms or bedroom balconies, they can add a splash of color to the residence.

34. Rosa Chinensis Viridiflora

Rosa Chinensis Viridiflora

Chu Zhuang Rosa Chinensis Viridiflora: This plant belongs to the Rosa genus. The Chu Zhuang Rosa Chinensis features a white base with soft pink edges.

The diameter of its flowers is around 6 cm with a medium number of petals, presenting a sweet and charming appearance.

This variety exhibits good heat tolerance, producing standard blooms even in the summer. Under adequate sunlight, its pink edges become even more pronounced. The single bloom period for Chu Zhuang lasts about a week.

With its upright branches, it’s ideal for cut flowers. The Chu Zhuang Rosa Chinensis emits a mild fragrance that is delightful and aligns with its graceful temperament.

35. Rosa Hybridahort

Rosa Hybridahort

“Black Magic” Rosa Hybridahort is a variant of the red rose, characterized by its deep red hue. Its thick petals reveal an intricate interplay of black and red, where each color seems to bleed into the other, presenting a harmoniously attractive appearance.

The flower exudes a plush, velvety texture, evoking a sense of luxury and mystery. “Black Magic” closely resembles the “Carola” variety, with the sole difference being its deep red, almost black hue.

During days with minimal temperature fluctuation, “Black Magic” boasts a more consistent shape than “Carola”. However, during days with significant temperature variations, its petals may appear disoriented.

36. Rosa ‘Juliet’

Rosa 'Juliet’

Rosa ‘Juliet’, pioneered by David Austin, is the inaugural cut rose variant from his collection. Often referred to as the “3 Million Rose”, it took over 15 years of cultivation to achieve its vintage rose charm and its unique bouquet shape.

Of all Austin’s cut roses, “Juliet” is the most subtly fragrant. It’s frequently the preferred choice for weddings, anniversaries, events, and other special occasions.

When the “Juliet” sapling blooms, it’s prolific with branches teeming with flowers, often producing perfectly shaped blossoms. Influenced by temperature, its summer blooms are typically smaller than its spring counterparts.

Under ample sunlight, the flower displays more vibrant colors and emits a mild, refreshing scent. Its stems are thick and robust, albeit scarce.

Care should be taken to prevent contamination from powdery mildew and red spider mites; however, it’s generally less susceptible to other diseases.

37. Rosa Laevigata

Rosa Laevigata

Rosa Laevigata, commonly known as “Golden Cherry”, is an evergreen climbing shrub from the rose family. The fruit surface varies from red-yellow to reddish-brown, adorned with raised brown spots – remnants of fallen spines.

Atop sits a disc-shaped blossom, featuring a slender yellow column that tapers at the base.

Upon cutting, the receptacle’s inner wall is slightly thick, containing numerous hard, slim fruits, both of which are lightly coated in yellow fuzz. Named “Golden Cherry” due to its small fruit size, comparable to cherries, and its ripe golden hue.

Rosa Laevigata

Native to China, “Golden Cherry” thrives in altitudes ranging from 200 to 1,600 meters, often found in mountains, fields, stream banks, and shrubs.

Favoring warm and sunlit environments, it’s adaptable to various soil types but thrives best in loose, fertile, organically rich sandy soils.

Reproduction of “Golden Cherry” can be either sexual or asexual, with cutting propagation being the most commonly employed method.

38. Rosa Nigra

Rosa Nigra

The Black Rose, Rosa Nigra, is a unique variety of the rose family, characterized by its deep, almost black hue. This distinctive trait has made it increasingly popular among younger generations.

At first glance, the Black Rose may seem unremarkable, but upon closer inspection, its mysterious beauty becomes apparent.

There are two common types of black roses for cut flowers: “Black Magic” has symmetrical, attractive blossoms with petals that display a deep red-black velvet feel, exuding an aura of luxury and mystery.

“Black Beauty” has slightly smaller blooms that are intricate and delicate, with a dark red hue shimmering with a velvety black luster.

39. Rosa Rubus

The Rosa Rubus, part of the rose family and genus, is a unique plant. Its root bark contains tannins. The plant features short, coarse, curved thorns on its stem, and its young branches are softly hairy, becoming less so as they age. The leaves are oval or elliptical, tapering to a sharp point at the tip. The flowers are arranged in conical clusters, with sepals that are spherical or ovate. The petals are white and also ovate in shape. The rosehip, or fruit of the plant, is almost spherical and becomes a shiny scarlet or purplish-brown when mature. It blooms from April to June and bears fruit from July to September.
Rosa Rubus is widely found across China. It commonly grows on slopes, alongside roads, in meadows, or within shrubs. Different parts of this plant, including its flowers, fruit, inner stem bark, and leaves, have medicinal properties. The flowers can be used to treat stomach ailments. The fruit has a sweet taste and is cooling in nature; it is believed to clear liver heat and has detoxifying effects. The inner bark of the stem is bitter and astringent, believed to have properties that remove toxins and dampness. The leaves can be used for their blood-coagulating and anti-bruise properties. The tender stems and leaves of the Rosa Rubus can be eaten fresh, either as a main ingredient or as an accompaniment, suitable for cold salads or stir-frying. The fruit can also be fermented to make wine or processed into jam.

The Rosa Rubus, part of the rose family and genus, is a unique plant. Its root bark contains tannins. The plant features short, coarse, curved thorns on its stem, and its young branches are softly hairy, becoming less so as they age.

The leaves are oval or elliptical, tapering to a sharp point at the tip. The flowers are arranged in conical clusters, with sepals that are spherical or ovate. The petals are white and also ovate in shape.

The rosehip, or fruit of the plant, is almost spherical and becomes a shiny scarlet or purplish-brown when mature. It blooms from April to June and bears fruit from July to September.

Rosa Rubus is widely found across China. It commonly grows on slopes, alongside roads, in meadows, or within shrubs. Different parts of this plant, including its flowers, fruit, inner stem bark, and leaves, have medicinal properties. The flowers can be used to treat stomach ailments.

The fruit has a sweet taste and is cooling in nature; it is believed to clear liver heat and has detoxifying effects.

The inner bark of the stem is bitter and astringent, believed to have properties that remove toxins and dampness. The leaves can be used for their blood-coagulating and anti-bruise properties.

The tender stems and leaves of the Rosa Rubus can be eaten fresh, either as a main ingredient or as an accompaniment, suitable for cold salads or stir-frying. The fruit can also be fermented to make wine or processed into jam.

40. Rosa

 rose

The rose, known as “Rosa,” is a term used to describe a variety of plants and cultivated flowers from the Rosaceae family and Rosa genus. These plants can be upright, sprawling, or climbing shrubs.

Many of them have thorns, prickles, or bristles, while others might be devoid of such features. Some may be hairy, hairless, or glandular hairy. The leaves are alternate; the flowers are solitary. The flower base can be spherical, flask-shaped, or cup-shaped.

Typically, there are five petals, occasionally four. These petals spread out and are arranged like overlapping tiles. They can be white, yellow, pink to red in color. The pistil can either be top-borne or side-borne, protruding, and can be separate or partially fused at the top.

The petals are ovate, and the flowers can be double, semi-double, and come in colors like purplish-red, yellow, pink, white, and various combinations. The branches tend to be soft, drooping, and often densely thorny, and these plants usually bloom only once a year.

Roses are among the most famous and beloved of all flowers. Whether it’s the ancient Greeks, Romans, Christians, Freemasons, or others, the rose has always been an enduring symbol of love, beauty, and equality.

While each color might express nuances in love, beauty, and balance, the predominant message remains love.

Roses carry various meanings, depending on their color. However, any rose is typically regarded as a symbol of love, honor, faith, beauty, balance, passion, wisdom, devotion, and eternity.

Economically, roses are significant; their blossoms are primarily used for food and the extraction of rose oil. This rose oil is utilized in cosmetics, food, and fine chemical industries.

41. Rosa Xanthina

Rosa Xanthina

The Rosa Xanthina, often referred to as the single-petaled yellow prickly rose, is the original species from which cultivated varieties of yellow prickly roses are derived.

This rose is an upright shrub that grows between 2-3 meters in height. The branches are thick, densely packed, and sprawling.

The twigs are hairless and sporadically feature thorns but no prickles. The leaves are broadly ovate or nearly round. Flowers emerge singly from the leaf axils and are single-petaled, with no bracts. The petals are yellow and broadly ovate.

The fruit is nearly spherical or ovate-round, colored purplish-brown or blackish-brown. The blooming season is from April to June, while the fruiting season is from July to August. It naturally grows on sunny slopes or amid shrubs and is native to China.

42. Rosa Xanthina Lindl

Rosa Xanthina Lindl

Rosa xanthina Lindl, a species from the Rosaceae family and Rosa genus, is an upright shrub that reaches 2-3 meters in height. The branches are stout and dense.

The leaflets are broadly ovate or near-round, with rounded serrations along the edges and are hairless on the upper surface.

The rachis and petiole feature sparse soft hairs and tiny thorns. The flowers, which are either double or semi-double petaled, are yellow in color. The flower stalk is 1-1.5 cm long, hairless, and gland-free.

The fruit is either nearly spherical or ovate-round and is colored purplish-brown or blackish-brown. The flowering season spans from April to June, while the fruiting season is from July to August.

The yellow prickly rose is native to northern China. It prefers sunlight but can tolerate partial shade. It boasts a strong resistance to cold, but it is not tolerant of waterlogged conditions.

While it can withstand drought and infertile soils, and even grow in saline-alkaline soils, it thrives best in loose, fertile ground. It has a robust root system, strong budding power, and is largely free from diseases and pests. It often grows on sunny slopes or among shrubs.

Propagation of the yellow prickly rose is primarily achieved through division, but it can also be propagated through cutting or layering.

In traditional medicine, the yellow prickly rose is characterized as sour, sweet, and warm. It is believed to invigorate the blood, relax muscles, regulate menstruation, strengthen the spleen, dispel dampness, promote urination, and reduce swelling.

It’s used to treat conditions such as indigestion, stomach pain, esophageal spasms, mastalgia, irregular menstruation, and injuries from falls or blows.

With its extended flowering season and vibrant color, the yellow prickly rose is not only a foundational plant but also a fitting ornamental choice for gardens.

43. Rosa”Crown Princess Margareta”

Rosa"Crown Princess Margareta”

Rosa “Crown Princess Margareta” is a rose variety that reaches a height of 120 centimeters. The flower diameter is 10 centimeters with 20-28 petals.

The flower is white with a touch of pearl-pink in the center. Elegant buds open to form the flower, where wavy petals surround a tightly curled center.

As time progresses, the center also unfolds to reveal golden stamens. With hotter climates, the pink hue in the flower tends to fade. Its fragrance is rich and spicy with citrus undertones, reminiscent of rose oil.

The “Crown Princess Margareta” shrub stands upright with shiny dark green leaves that have a hint of gray. It is highly resistant to rain and powdery mildew, and moderately resistant to black spot disease.

44. Rosmarinus Officinalis

Rosmarinus Officinalis

Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is a perennial evergreen sub-shrub. Young branches are quadrangular and densely covered with white star-shaped fine fluff. Older branches are net-columned in shape and brown.

The back of the rosemary leaf is dark green and smooth, while the underside is silver-white with tiny fluff and glandular scales.

The stem is cylindrical with a dark gray cortex. Leaves are often clustered on the branch, either with very short stems or stemless, and are linear in shape.

The calyx is ovate-bell-shaped, and the corolla is blue-purple. Main varieties of rosemary include European rosemary, white robin rosemary, Santa Barbara rosemary, broadleaf rosemary, large pink rosemary, blue Suffolk rosemary, and variegated rosemary.

Rosemary is native to the North African Mediterranean coast and Europe. It doesn’t tolerate waterlogging, showing yellowing and leaf drop during excessively rainy months. It has poor cold resistance; in the colder regions of northern China, its roots should be covered in winter. Rosemary thrives in sunlight but can also grow in semi-shaded environments.

Rosemary is a precious natural aromatic plant that emits a refreshing fragrance during its growing season. Essential oils extracted from its flowers and tender branches are used in formulating air fresheners, perfumes, soaps, and other cosmetic products.

Rosemary leaves have properties that relieve gas, alleviate spasms, promote bile flow, and clear channels. In traditional Chinese medicine, rosemary is believed to induce sweating, strengthen the spleen, calm the spirit, and relieve pain.

45. Rotheca Myricoides

Rotheca Myricoides

Rotheca Myricoides, commonly referred to as Blue Butterfly, belongs to the Verbenaceae family and the Rotheca genus. It is a plant that, when in bloom, bears a striking resemblance to a flurry of dancing butterflies, hence its name.

The young branches are square in shape and are purplish-brown in color. The plant can grow from 60 cm up to 1 meter in height. Its leaves are opposite, ovate to lanceolate in shape, with the tip being either pointed or rounded.

The upper half of the leaf margin has shallow serrations, while the lower half is smooth. The flowers, resembling butterflies, range from light blue to purple.

The petals are spread flat with the corolla being symmetrical on both sides; the corolla is white, and the lip petal is purple-blue.

The stamens are slender. The ideal soil for this plant is loamy or sandy loam with good drainage. It prefers warmer temperatures, thriving best between 23-32℃.

The Blue Butterfly is primarily found in Uganda, Africa. Propagation is typically done by cutting, with spring and autumn being the best seasons for it. Due to its elegant colors, it serves as an excellent ornamental shrub.

It is commonly used in pots for balcony, terrace, bedroom, and living room decorations. In parks, gardens, and communities, they are often planted in clusters or patches for viewing.

46. Rudbeckia Hirta

Rudbeckia Hirta

Rudbeckia Hirta, known as Black-eyed Susan, belongs to the Asteraceae family and the Rudbeckia genus. This perennial is often grown as an annual or biennial herb.

The center of the flower is raised and is a purplish-brown color, surrounded by petal-like small golden-yellow flowers.

The blooming period ranges from early summer until the first frost. Cultivated varieties have flowers with shades ranging from mahogany to chestnut brown, including double and semi-double types.

Some varieties have an olive-green “Irish eye” in the center, and there are tetraploids with flower diameters reaching up to 15 cm. Besides the standard yellow, other variants include seasonal red flowers and bicolored ones.

The Black-eyed Susan is native to the eastern region of the United States. Its cold resistance is not particularly strong. In central China, it can be sown in the fall and left outdoors to overwinter. It is also suitable to be used as a cut flower.

47. Rudbeckia Laciniata

Rudbeckia Laciniata

Rudbeckia Laciniata, commonly known as Golden Glow, is a perennial herbaceous plant from the Asteraceae family.

It grows between 50 to 200 cm tall, with branches at the upper part of the stem. Its leaves are alternate and can be either smooth or sparsely short-haired, supported by long pedicels.

The plant boasts a hemispherical involucre, with oblong-shaped tongue flowers in a golden hue and lanceolate petals facing downwards. The tubular flowers are either yellow or yellow-green. Its fruit is hairless, flat, and blooms between July and October.

Golden Glow is native to North America and can be found in Beijing, Tianjin, and Heilongjiang in China. It’s a robust plant, highly cold-resistant, and tolerates thin soils.

With minimal maintenance, it thrives in fertile soils with good drainage and ample sunlight. Reproduction is typically through division or sowing seeds.

The leaves of the Golden Glow have medicinal properties. They’re bitter and cool, effective for heat-clearing and detoxification. Boiling 5 to 6 leaves in water offers a remedy for acute gastroenteritis. Applying crushed fresh leaves externally helps heal painful sores.

The bright and cheerful appearance of the Golden Glow makes it perfect for decorating flower beds and is also suitable as a cut flower.

However, the whole plant is toxic, with symptoms of poisoning including loss of appetite, lethargy, increased excretion, and visual disturbances.

48. Russelia Equisetiformis

Russelia Equisetiformis

Russelia Equisetiformis, commonly known as Firecracker Plant, belongs to the Plantaginaceae family. It’s an upright, horsetail-like semi-shrub that can grow up to 1 meter tall and is completely hairless. Its stems branch out alternately, are slender and ridged.

The leaves are alternate, having evolved into scale-like lanceolate shapes. Its narrow inflorescences form umbrella-like clusters, with floral stalks reaching up to 3 cm and bracts shaped like drills. The floral stems are nearly 1 cm long, with small, deeply divided calyx.

The corolla is red, with a long tube that isn’t distinctly lipped. There are four stamens, hidden inside, and a very tiny staminode positioned at the base of the corolla tube. The fruit is spherical, splitting between the chambers.

Native to Central America, the Firecracker Plant prefers well-ventilated, warm, semi-humid conditions. It tolerates direct sunlight, is reasonably cold-resistant, and drought-tolerant.

The Firecracker Plant is primarily used as a potted decoration for venues, halls, flower stands, and balconies. It’s an indispensable flower in subtropical regions during summer.

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