67 Flowers That Start With P

1. Prunus Serrulata

Prunus Serrulata

Prunus serrulata, commonly known as “Red Tassel” or “Kwanzan Cherry”, is a representative variety of double-flowering cherries. It typically blooms at the end of March or the beginning of April, with its flowers and leaves appearing simultaneously.

This species is somewhat similar to another cherry variety. The flowers are deep red, with stems around 6 centimeters in length. The flowers have about 30 petals, and two of the carpels have transformed into petals, making the tree sterile and unable to bear fruit.

The flower stems are thick and long. The young leaves are tea-brown. The small branches are numerous and tend to bend upwards. This is a small tree, with an average height of 2.5 meters. It has many branches and produces a large number of flowers.

In autumn, its orange-yellow leaves are as attractive as those of the ginkgo tree. The tree can be planted individually, in groups, or even used as a street tree.

2. Pachira Glabra

Pachira Glabra

Pachira Glabra, often called the “Money Tree”, is a small evergreen tree from the Malvaceae family. Its leaves are ovate-elliptical with a sharp tip and a rounded base. The flowers are solitary with thick, robust stems covered in yellow star-shaped trichomes.

The calyx is cup-shaped, and the filaments are entirely white, ranging from lanceolate to linear in shape.

The fruit resembles a pear and is yellow-brown in color, while the seeds are large, wedge-shaped, and hairless. It generally flowers between May and November, with the fruits ripening subsequently.

The name “Money Tree” comes from its phonetic resemblance to the term “fa cai” in Chinese, meaning “to get rich”, and thus the plant symbolizes prosperity and good fortune.

The Money Tree is native to Central and South America. It prefers high temperature and humidity, is not frost-resistant, and its seedlings are particularly susceptible to frost. It thrives in fertile, loose, well-aerated, and moisture-retentive sandy loam.

It prefers acidic soil and doesn’t do well in alkaline or heavy soils. While it can tolerate waterlogged conditions to some extent, it is also somewhat drought-resistant. Propagation methods include seeding and cutting.

The Money Tree has an attractive form and is highly shade-tolerant, making it a popular indoor ornamental plant. The name “Money Tree” represents the concept of prosperity and wealth, conveying good wishes to those who possess it.

3. Pachystachys Lutea

Pachystachys Lutea

Pachystachys Lutea, commonly known as the “Golden Shrimp Plant” or “Lollipop Plant”, is an evergreen herbaceous plant belonging to the Acanthaceae family.

The leaves are elliptical or lanceolate, tapering at the end and usually wedge-shaped at the base, with the underside of the main vein covered in soft hairs. Its terminal spike inflorescences consist of dense, short peduncles, with membranous ovate bracts.

The lower bracts are almost heart-shaped, and the smaller bracts are lanceolate or spoon-shaped, about the same length as the calyx, with slight serrations at the tip.

The flowers are yellow and bloom from April to August, with the fruiting period from July to November. Its name, “Golden Shrimp Plant”, derives from its shrimp-like appearance and the golden yellow color of its bracts.

Native to Peru, the Golden Shrimp Plant is cultivated in various places and can be found in countries like Brazil and Panama.

It prefers high temperature, high humidity, abundant sunlight, and fertile soil with good drainage. It’s also somewhat shade-tolerant. Its propagation methods include cutting and tissue culture.

With its vibrant leaves and bright flowers, the Golden Shrimp Plant makes an ideal potted plant.

Commonly used for indoor decoration in gardens, it can be found in school campuses and is often used to adorn offices, living rooms, and reception centers, giving a refreshing tropical vibe.

The symbolic meaning or “language” of the flower is “auspiciousness and joy.”

4. Padus Avium

Padus Avium

Padus Avium, commonly known as “Wild Cherry” or “Bird Cherry”, is a tree species belonging to the Rosaceae family. The tree can reach a height of 15 meters.

Young branches are velvety, and winter buds either lack hairs or have cilia on the edge of the scales. The leaves are elliptical, oblong, or oblong-ovate, with a rounded or broadly wedge-shaped base and irregular serrations.

The inflorescence and flower stalks are hairless. The calyx is bell-shaped, with triangular ovate sepals, and the petals are white with numerous stamens. The drupe is ovate and the flowering period is from April to May, with the fruiting period from May to October.

Wild Cherry is found in many parts of China and is also distributed in Japan, Korea, and Russia. It grows on slopes, valleys, forests, and shrubs at altitudes ranging from 200 to 2,500 meters.

The tree is shade-tolerant, cold-resistant, somewhat drought-resistant, and prefers moist, fertile, well-draining soil. Propagation methods generally include seeding and tillering.

Various parts of the Wild Cherry, including its flowers, fruits, bark, and leaves, have medicinal properties. They can be used to treat diarrhea, soothe coughs, and the bark can be refined to extract tannin.

With its elegant stature, it can be planted alongside roads or walls and can be planted individually, in clusters, or in groups. The fruit can be eaten raw or used for wine-making and can be processed into juices, jams, wines, etc.

The seeds contain oil that can be extracted for industrial purposes. The bark, rich in tannins, can also be used to produce adhesive and dye. The symbolic meaning or “language” of the Wild Cherry is “universal love.”

5. Paederia Scandens

Paederia Scandens

Paederia Scandens, commonly referred to as “Skunk Vine” due to its unpleasant odor, is a vining shrub from the Rubiaceae family and is glabrous or nearly glabrous.

The leaves are opposite, papery or nearly leathery, and come in a variety of shapes. Both the petioles and stipules are hairless. Its flowers can either be axillary or terminal and resemble a corymbose panicle.

The flowers may have short stalks, with a spirally twisted calyx tube and triangular calyx lobes.

The corolla is light purple, with anthers attached at the back, and the filaments are of varying lengths.

The fruit is spherical, turning almost yellow when mature, and the small nuts are wingless and light black. It flowers from May to June and can be found in provinces like Fujian and Guangdong in China.

It’s also native to Vietnam and India, commonly growing in sparse forests at low altitudes.

Skunk Vine is suitable for landscaping as ground-cover vines. It’s also one of the popular traditional herbs in China. The whole plant has medicinal properties, known to alleviate pain, reduce inflammation, improve blood circulation, and provide anti-tuberculosis benefits.

The leaves are edible; in summer, they’re often used as a tea substitute and can be used to make special snacks like glutinous rice balls.

6. Paeonia Lactiflora

Paeonia Lactiflora, known as “Chinese Peony” or “White Peony”, belongs to the Paeoniaceae family and is a perennial herb. It has a robust root that branches out and is dark brown in color. The stem, which is hairless, stands at 40-70 cm tall.

Lower stem leaves are biternate, while the upper stem leaves are ternate. The leaflets are narrow-ovate, elliptical, or lanceolate.

The flowers, which can be various colors, are sometimes solitary at the top of the stem, surrounded by 4-5 lanceolate and uneven-sized bracts, and 4 wide-ovate or almost round sepals. It has 9-13 obovate petals, sometimes with deep purple bases, and yellow filaments that are 0.7-1.2 cm long.

The carpel is 2.5-3 cm long and 1.2-1.5 cm in diameter, with a beak at the top. The blooming period is from May to June, and the fruiting period is in August.

This plant is distributed across China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia, and Russia. In China, it grows on mountainous grasslands and under forests at elevations of 480-700 meters in the northeast, and on slopes of 1000-2300 meters in other provinces.

The Chinese Peony is a versatile plant that serves both medicinal and ornamental purposes. Its root, known as “Bai Shao”, is used in traditional medicine for pain relief, antispasmodic properties, blood circulation improvement, and regulating menstruation.

The seeds contain about 25% oil, which can be used to make soap and paint.

7. Paeonia Ostii

Paeonia Ostii

Paeonia Ostii, often referred to as “Oil Peony”, is a plant under the Paeoniaceae family and Paeonia genus. It’s a deciduous shrub with a height of up to 2 meters.

The branches are short and relatively rugged, showing resilience against drought, poor soil, and cold conditions.

During its growth, the surface of its leaves is green while the underside is light green. Flowers grow singularly at the top of the branch, with 5 bracts that are elliptical and vary in size. The number of petals is also 5, presenting in white or pink hues.

This plant is native to China and is a quintessential temperate plant. It thrives in mild, cool environments with abundant sunlight.

It has a certain degree of cold resistance, slightly tolerant to semi-shade, prefers dry conditions, and dislikes hot and humid climates. The ideal soil for it should be loose and deep.

Paeonia Ostii is an excellent ecological tree species. The unsaturated fatty acid content in its seed oil exceeds 90%, with the polyunsaturated fatty acid—linolenic acid—comprising over 40%.

The dried root bark of the plant has properties of clearing heat, cooling the blood, promoting circulation, and breaking down blood stasis.

Its main component, Paeonol, has anti-inflammatory, sedative, fever-reducing, analgesic, and antispasmodic central inhibitory effects. It also offers benefits like countering atherosclerosis, promoting diuresis, and combating ulcers.

8. Paeonia Suffruticosa

Paeonia Suffruticosa

Paeonia Suffruticosa, commonly known as “Tree Peony” or “Mudan”, belongs to the Paeoniaceae family and the Paeonia genus.

It is a perennial deciduous shrub, reaching heights up to 2 meters with short and thick branches. Its leaves are usually biternate, green on the surface, hairless, and light green (sometimes with a white powdery substance) on the underside.

The petiole is 5-11 cm long, and both the petiole and rachis are hairless. Flowers grow singly at the branch’s top with 5 elongated oval bracts, 5 green, wide-ovate sepals, and 5 petals (or sometimes double-layered), which can vary in color from rose to dark purple, pink, or white.

The petals often have irregular wavy edges at the tip. The flower period is in May, and the fruiting period is in June.

The Tree Peony is renowned for its vibrant hues and exquisite beauty, often referred to as the “King of Flowers”. Among cultivated types, based on the color of the flowers, hundreds of varieties exist.

The vast diversity of Tree Peony varieties offers a rich palette of colors, with yellow, green, pink, deep red, and silver-red being the most prized—especially the yellow and green varieties.

The flowers are large and fragrant, earning the Tree Peony the epithet of “national beauty and heavenly fragrance”.

9. Paeonia Suffruticosa

Paeonia Suffruticosa

Paeonia Suffruticosa :This is a deciduous shrub with a medium to tall stature that spreads out. It has short, thick branches that tend to be soft and curved.

The first-year branches are long and pale green in color. The leaves are usually biternate, with the terminal leaflet being broadly ovate. The top surface of the leaf is green and hairless, while the underside is pale green, sometimes having a white powdery substance.

Sparse, short, soft hairs can be found along the leaf veins or they may be nearly hairless. The flower grows singularly at the top of the branch, with 5 elongated oval bracts of varying sizes. There are 5 green, wide-ovate sepals also of varying sizes.

The petals are double-layered, and the flower can be crown-shaped, sometimes appearing like a lotus, a golden hoop, or a cassia shape.

The flower buds are large and round-tipped, and the pollen is colored. The upper part of the filament is white, and the anther is elongated oval.

The flower disc is leathery and cup-shaped, being purplish-red. There are 5 carpels densely covered with soft hairs. The follicles are elongated oval and densely covered with yellow-brown hard hairs. The flowering period is in May, and the fruiting period is in June.

Among the four famous types of peonies, ‘Zhao Fen’ is the youngest. It is renowned for its rich fragrance and prolific flowering. This variety can have single, semi-double, or double petals, and some plants may display all three types of flowers on a single tree.

Due to its distinct advantages, its reputation quickly spread and it became highly regarded. Along with ‘Yao Huang’, ‘Wei Zi’, and ‘Dou Lu’, it is considered one of the top four peony varieties. This horticultural variety is cultivated mainly for ornamental purposes.

10. Paeonia Suffruticosa

Paeonia Suffruticosa

Paeonia Suffruticosa :This is a deciduous shrub with a medium to tall stature, semi-spreading, giving it an elegant and aesthetic appearance.

The branches are relatively thick and robust, with first-year branches being shorter and having short internodes. The plant has medium-sized round leaves, with the total petiole reaching approximately 10 cm in length.

It originates from the dwarf tree peony, P. suffruticosa var. spontanea, found in the Yan’an region of Shaanxi, China. It has been widely cultivated throughout China and was introduced abroad at an early time. It thrives in warm, cool, dry environments with ample sunlight.

This plant is ornamental in nature. Together with the “Yao Huang” variety, these two types of peonies are considered the finest among the Luoyang peonies.

11. Paeonia Suffruticosa

Paeonia Suffruticosa

Green Peony Paeonia Suffruticosa: One of the four renowned peony varieties. It is a deciduous shrub, with stems that can reach up to 2 meters in height and thick, short branches.

The leaves are typically doubly ternate, with a broad ovate leaflet at the tip. The leaf’s surface is green and hairless, while the back is pale green, occasionally with a white powdery residue, and sparse short hairs or nearly bald along the veins.

Flowers are singular and top the branches, encased by five bracts of varying sizes and shapes; these are long oval. The five sepals are green, broad, ovate, and of varying sizes. The blooms are double-petaled, either crown-shaped or resembling a pom-pom.

Buds are round and often split at the top. The flowers are yellowish-green, with irregular wavy edges at the top. The filaments are white at the top, and the anthers are elongated ovals.

The floral disc is leathery and cup-shaped in a purplish-red hue, while the ovaries have five carpels covered in soft hairs.

The fruits are elongated ovals, densely covered in yellowish-brown stiff hairs. It blossoms in May and bears fruit in June.

This variety has a moderate growth rate, high flowering efficiency, and produces many shoots. It’s a rare and precious breed, primarily cultivated for ornamental purposes.

12. Paeonia Suffruticosa ‘Yaohuang’

Paeonia Suffruticosa 'Yaohuang'

Yaohuang Paeonia suffruticosa ‘Yaohuang’: Another of the four esteemed peony varieties. This deciduous shrub grows upright, with thin, rigid branches that are also short and thick. The leaves, similar to the Green Peony, are doubly ternate with broad ovate leaflets at the top.

The leaf surface is green and hairless, while the underside is pale green, occasionally powdered white, with sparse soft hairs or nearly hairless along the veins. The flower sits singularly atop the branches, with five varying-sized, long oval bracts.

The five sepals are green, broad ovate, and vary in size. The flower is generally crown-shaped but sometimes appears ringed in gold. Flower buds are rounded but taper to a point and often split at the top.

The blossoms are a soft yellow, with upper white filaments and elongated oval anthers. The floral disc is leathery, cup-shaped, and purplish-red, while the five carpel ovaries are densely covered in soft hairs.

Fruits are elongated ovals, densely covered with yellowish-brown stiff hairs. This variety blooms in May and fruits in June.

This medium-sized flower variety has robust growth, high flowering efficiency, and blooms uniformly. Its full flower form led ancient people to herald it as the “King of Flowers.”

13. Paeonia Suffruticosa Andr.

Paeonia Suffruticosa Andr.

Black Beauty Paeonia Suffruticosa Andr. is a plant of the peony family and genus. The stamen is normal, occasionally transforming into petals, while the pistil is typically normal, though occasionally it transforms into green-colored petals.

The flower stem is relatively short and soft, colored in a purple-brown hue, with the flower opening sideways. This is a medium-sized flower variety.

The plant has a short stature, with semi-open growth. Its branches are slender, with young branches and short internodes.

Medium, round leaves are soft, with the main leaf stem reaching approximately 12 cm in length, extending straight out in a brownish-purple color.

The small leaf stems are somewhat shorter, while the small leaves themselves are ovate-round, sharply pointed at the end.

The leaves have few notches, are smooth, deep green, with a faint purplish hue. The plant’s growth vigor is slightly weak, yet it has a high flowering rate and produces many shoots. It’s a traditional variety.

14. Paeonia Suffruticosa Cv. ‘Luoyang Red’

Paeonia Suffruticosa Cv. 'Luoyang Red’

Luoyang Red Peony Paeonia Suffruticosa Cv. ‘Luoyang Red’ is a perennial deciduous shrub from the Ranunculaceae family and the peony genus.

Also known as tree peony, Luoyang flower, valley rain flower, and deer chive, it belongs to the perennial deciduous shrub category of the same family as the peony.

The Luoyang Red Peony displays a purple-red color, with a diameter of 17 cm, making it considerably smaller than the King Peony.

15. Paeonia Suffruticosa ‘Greendragon Sleeping Pool’

Paeonia Suffruticosa 'Greendragon Sleeping Pool’

Greendragon Sleeping in Ink Paeonia Suffruticosa ‘Greendragon Sleeping Pool’: A highly regarded peony variety. This deciduous shrub grows outward in a bushy form with numerous branches and lush leaves. The leaves are large, round, and thick in texture.

The leaflets are ovate with few notches and are blunt at the tips. The surface of the leaf is green with a hint of purple. The flower is a light ink-purple, resembling the shape of an osmanthus or occasionally a crown.

The base of the flower is notably darker and more prominent, with wide, well-rounded outer petals surrounding delicate, curled inner petals. The pistil in the center transforms into a greenish hue, with narrow, coiled petals.

Surrounding it are multiple layers of deep purple petals, creating an image reminiscent of a green dragon resting in an ink pool – hence the name. It’s highly valued for ornamental purposes, grows robustly, blooms abundantly, and is one of the famous older varieties.

16. Paeonia Suffruticosa ‘Two Qiao’

Paeonia Suffruticosa 'Two Qiao’

Paeonia Suffruticosa ‘Two Qiao’: Also known as Luoyang Brocade, it stands as one of the premium peony varieties.

This deciduous shrub is tall, with stems reaching up to 2 meters and standing upright. It has slender and rigid branches with long yearly growth and extended nodes; the buds are round-tipped.

The medium-sized leaves are typically bi-pinnately compound, green on the surface, hairless, and pale green underneath. Occasionally, they might have a white powdery residue and sparse short hairs along the veins.

Flowers bloom singularly at the top of branches, with five variable-sized bracts that are long and oval. The five sepals are green, wide, and ovate in shape.

The rose-like flowers have flat, round buds with varying colors on the same plant or branch, presenting both purple-red and pink flowers; some even display an intertwined purple-pink combination.

The filament’s upper part is white, the anthers are oblong, the floral disc is leathery and cup-shaped in a purplish-red shade, and there are five densely haired carpels. The fruit is oblong and densely covered in yellowish-brown bristles.

Originating from Luoyang, China, ‘Two Qiao’ is a medium-sized flower variety and is considered a traditional treasure among Luoyang peonies. It ranks first among the multi-colored series.

17. Panax Notoginseng

Panax Notoginseng

Panax Notoginseng, commonly known as the flower of Notoginseng, is a medicinal name in traditional Chinese medicine. It belongs to the Araliaceae family and is native to various regions in China.

This perennial herb has a robust, fleshy taproot that’s either spindle-shaped or conical. Its leaves are palmately compound, and it produces small yellow-green flowers in an umbrella-shaped inflorescence that emerges singly from the top.

The fruit resembles a berry and turns bright red when ripe. The seeds are flat, spherical, and white. It typically blooms between June and August, with the fruit maturing from August to October.

18. Papaver Orientale

Papaver Orientale

Papaver Orientale, known as the Oriental Poppy, is a perennial herb belonging to the Papaveraceae family and the Papaver genus.

The plant is covered in stiff hairs and exudes a milky white sap. Its root is spindle-shaped and white, with a singular stem that stands upright, reaching heights of 60-90 cm.

The stem is cylindrical and covered with outward-pointing or closely appressed stiff hairs. Its basal leaves are either ovate or lanceolate in outline. Flowers grow singularly, with elongated, hairy stalks.

The buds are either ovate or broadly ovate, measuring 2-3 cm in length, and are covered in protruding stiff hairs.

It typically has 2, sometimes 3, sepals that are green on the outside and the same color internally. The petals range between 4 to 6 in number and are broadly ovate or fan-shaped.

The fruit is nearly spherical, with diameters between 2-3.5 cm, and is pale with no hair. Seeds are round-kidney-shaped, brown, with broad stripes and tiny holes. It flowers between June and July.

Originally from the Mediterranean region, it’s now widely cultivated in Taiwan for ornamental purposes.

The plant thrives in sunny and well-ventilated environments and should be planted in loose, fertile, well-draining sandy soil. It’s cold-resistant, with seedlings and rhizomes able to withstand short durations of temperatures as low as -10°C.

Although the Oriental Poppy’s name includes the term “poppy”, its fruit does not contain the morphine-like anesthetic alkaloids and is a non-toxic, excellent ornamental flower. Its blossoms are even larger and more vibrant than the standard poppy.

The fruit and entire plant of the Oriental Poppy are used medicinally, possessing analgesic, antitussive, and anti-diarrheal properties. It’s primarily used to treat coughs and abdominal pain.

19. Papaver Rhoeas

Papaver Rhoeas

Corn Poppy (Papaver Rhoeas) is an annual herbaceous plant, often covered with sprawling stiff hairs, occasionally hairless. Its stem stands upright, ranging between 25 to 90 centimeters in height, with several branches.

The leaf shape is lanceolate or narrowly ovate, pinnately divided with lanceolate segments. Flowers bloom singularly at the tips of the stems and branches. The bud is elliptically ovate and drooping. The flower has two sepals that are broadly elliptical.

There are four petals, either circular, horizontally elliptical, or broadly ovate, measuring between 2.5 to 4.5 centimeters, typically undivided, occasionally with rounded teeth or a notch at the tip. They are purple-red, often with deep purple spots near the base.

The fruit is a broadly ovate capsule, between 1 to 2.2 centimeters in length, hairless, with subtle ribs. Numerous kidney-shaped seeds, about 1 millimeter long, fill the fruit. It blooms and fruits between March and August.

Native to Europe, it’s commonly cultivated across China as an ornamental plant.

Both the flowers and the whole plant are used in traditional medicine, containing a variety of alkaloids with antitussive, anti-diarrheal, analgesic, and sedative properties. The seeds have an oil content of over 40%.

20. Papaver Somniferum

Papaver Somniferum

Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum) is a species of the poppy family and the primary source for opium production.

Also known as the opium flower, spring beauty, dancing grass, full-of-charm, rivaling peony, and hero flower, it boasts large, vibrant blooms with a rich fragrance, considered one of the world’s most beautiful flowers.

Symbolizing the Scorpio zodiac sign, it’s native to Anatolia, India, and Iran. It is cultivated in some regions of China for medicinal purposes. Opium Poppy is an annual herbaceous plant of the poppy family.

The entire plant has a powdery green hue. Its leaves are elongated and elliptical, growing around the stem. Flowers blossom in summer, producing large, vibrant petals in shades of red, purple, and white, facing upwards.

Though the flowers fall off quickly, they leave behind spherical fruit filled with numerous tiny seeds. The plant contains substances like morphine and cocaine. While excessive consumption can be addictive, it’s also highly valued as an ornamental plant.

21. Paphiopedilum Hirsutissimum

Paphiopedilum Hirsutissimum

The Paphiopedilum Hirsutissimum, commonly known as the Leafy Slipper Orchid, is a terrestrial or semi-epiphytic plant belonging to the Orchidaceae family. It has basal leaves, with several to many leathery, strap-shaped leaves.

Flower stems emerge from the leaf clusters, and their bracts are not leaf-like. The ovary often narrows into a beak at the top. The blooms are large and vibrant, coming in various hues. The central sepal stands erect, and the pollen is powdery or sticky.

Degenerate stamens are flattened, and the column head is fleshy, bending downwards, with nipple-like bumps. The fruit is a capsule, and its flowering period is from April to May.

The Leafy Slipper Orchid is native to many regions in China and can be found in northeastern India, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand.

It thrives at altitudes between 700-1500 meters, typically beneath forests, along forest edges, within rocky crevices, or on stony moist soil. It mainly propagates from seeds but can also reproduce through division.

The Leafy Slipper Orchid, with its graceful stature, unique flower shape, rich colors, and evergreen leaves, is considered one of the precious flowering plants.

It’s also among the earliest and most widely cultivated “exotic orchids” worldwide, prized for its ornamental value.

22. Passiflora Caerulea

Passiflora Caerulea

The Passiflora Caerulea, or Blue Passion Flower, is a perennial evergreen climbing shrub belonging to the Passifloraceae family. Its stem is cylindrical with ridges and hairless.

The leaves are paper-thin, heart-shaped, and smooth. Its flowers are umbrella-shaped and relatively large in a pale green hue. The fruit is nearly spherical and turns orange-yellow or yellow upon ripening.

The seeds are plentiful, inverted heart-shaped, and the flowering period spans from May to July. The name “Passion Flower” is derived from the Passion of Christ.

The Blue Passion Flower is indigenous to the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. It’s now widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. It thrives in a moist, warm climate and is not particularly soil-sensitive.

However, it performs best in well-draining, deep, loamy soils that are rich in organic matter and placed in sunny areas. The primary methods of propagation are cutting and seeding, with cutting being the most common.

The Blue Passion Flower is primarily used to treat ailments like coughs and asthma. Its distinct flower shape holds high ornamental value, making it perfect for adorning gardens, balconies, and similar spaces.

23. Pelargonium Hortorum

Pelargonium Hortorum

The Pelargonium Hortorum, known as the Garden Geranium, is a herbaceous plant from the Geraniaceae family. It has an upright stem that turns woody at the base and emits a fishy odor.

The leaves are alternately arranged, with the stipules being broadly triangular or ovate, and the leaves are circular or kidney-shaped with a heart-shaped base. The flower stalks are covered with soft hairs and glandular hairs, while the sepals are narrow lanceolate.

The petals can be red, orange-red, pink, or white, and are broadly ovate in shape. The fruit is softly hairy. It flowers between May and July and fruits from June to September. The term “Tianzhu” is an ancient Chinese name for India.

The name “Tianzhu Geranium” might have originated from its association with warm countries, meaning “Indian Sunflower.” Thus, it’s elegantly named “Tianzhu Geranium.”

The Garden Geranium is native to southern Africa. It prefers a climate that’s warm in winter and cool in summer and thrives in semi-shaded, damp environments.

It has a slight resistance to drought and saline-alkali areas but is sensitive to waterlogging and frost. The primary method of propagation is through stem cuttings.

The Garden Geranium has therapeutic effects on human fatigue and neurasthenia, offering some medicinal value. It also has ornamental value, suitable for indoor placement and flower bed arrangements.

Moreover, the stems and leaves contain essential oils which can be extracted to produce fragrant alcohols, vanillin, and geranyl acetate, making it an indispensable fragrance in the industry.

While this flower originates from South Africa and is named after “Tianzhu” (India) in China, it implies mistaken identity or transformation in Buddhist philosophy.

24. Penstemon Campanulatus

Penstemon Campanulatus

The Penstemon Campanulatus, also known as Bellflower Beardtongue, is a perennial evergreen herb, standing 15 to 45 centimeters tall, with the entire plant being hairy.

The leaf arrangement resembles a rosette, and the leaves are slightly fleshy and inverted lanceolate, measuring around 7.5 centimeters. It boasts a rich variety of flower colors, blooming from April to May.

It enjoys a warm, well-lit, and well-ventilated environment, but it dislikes high temperatures and drought during the summer. Native to the Americas, it’s cultivated in many countries worldwide.

With its prolonged flowering period, it’s suitable for flowerbed planting. Paired with other blue perennial flowers, it can form a striking color landscape. It can also be grown in pots for ornamental purposes.

25. Pentapetes Phoenicea

Pentapetes Phoenicea

The Pentapetes Phoenicea, commonly referred to as the “Noon Flower,” is an annual herbaceous plant from the Malvaceae family, growing up to 1 meter in height.

Its leaves are alternately arranged in a linear-lanceolate shape with a pointed tip and a broad triangular base with blunt serrations.

Flowers emerge from the axils, with sepals that are lanceolate and covered with stellate soft and stiff hairs. The petals are a wide ovate shape and are red in color. The capsule-like fruit is ovate and spherical, covered with stellate hairs and bristles.

The seeds are elliptical and have a fan-shaped endosperm. The blooming period is during the summer and autumn. It’s named “Noon Flower” because it blooms around midday.

At night, once the flowers wither, their corolla resembles a coin, hence it’s also called “Night’s Falling Coin.”

Originally from India, the Noon Flower can also be found in Japan and China. It prefers warmth and light, is heat-tolerant but not cold-resistant, and thrives in fertile, loose sandy loam. Its primary mode of reproduction is by seeds.

Medicinally, the Noon Flower has properties that can reduce heat, detoxify, dissolve lumps, and reduce swelling. It’s also used to treat tumors, mastitis, and mumps.

Because of its vibrant color, unique flower shape, and long flowering period, it’s suitable for flower beds and pot cultivation. Its continuous blooming and “coin-like” appearance make it symbolic of prosperity.

26. Pentas Lanceolata

Pentas Lanceolata

The Pentas Lanceolata, or “Egyptian Star Cluster,” is an erect or sprawling sub-shrub from the Rubiaceae family, standing between 30 to 70 centimeters tall. Its leaves are ovate, elliptical, or lanceolate-oblong with a short pointed tip and a narrowing base that resembles a short stem.

The inflorescence is dense and terminal. The flowers are sessile and dimorphic, with variable styles. The corolla is pale purple, densely hairy in the throat, and the crown is spread out. It blooms in summer and autumn.

The flower, with its tubular corolla and bright red five-pointed star-shaped top, is hence named “Egyptian Star Cluster.”

Native to tropical Africa and the Arabian regions, it’s cultivated in southern China. It thrives in well-lit or semi-shaded areas, prefers a warm and humid climate, is heat-resistant and drought-tolerant, but not cold-tolerant. It doesn’t have specific soil requirements.

Propagation methods include seeding and cutting.

Medicinally, the stems and leaves of the Egyptian Star Cluster can repel insects, primarily treating mite-related symptoms.

Its root bark has properties that expel wind, relieve depression, and treat abscesses, primarily addressing arthritis, depression, sores, and sexually transmitted diseases.

With its long blooming period and star-shaped flowers, it has significant ornamental value and is suitable for indoor pot cultivation.

27. Periploca Sepium

Periploca Sepium

Periploca sepium, also known as Silkvine, is a deciduous climbing shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae family. It can grow up to 4 meters in height. The main root is cylindrical and gray-brown, with gray-brown stems.

The branches often grow in pairs, with membranous, lanceolate-oblong leaves. The flowers, which bloom between May and June, are arranged in paired, axillary umbels with hairless corolla segments.

The fruit, which matures between July and September, is cylindrical, and the seeds are elongated oval in shape.

Silkvine is commonly found in many parts of China. It prefers sunlight, is cold and drought-resistant, can thrive in poor soil, and can tolerate shade. With strong adaptability to soil types, it possesses a strong ability to resist wind erosion and being buried by sand.

It often grows on arid slopes, beside fields, or on stabilized or semi-stabilized sand dunes. It usually reproduces by seeds, cutting, and division. This plant is listed as “Least Concern (LC)” on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Medicinally, Silkvine is pungent, bitter, warm, and toxic. It has diuretic properties, can relieve rheumatism, and strengthen muscles and bones. It’s used to treat symptoms like swelling in the lower limbs, palpitations, shortness of breath, cold-damp impediment pain, and weak knees.

The bark of its roots can be used as an insecticide, and oil can be extracted from its seeds. The latex from the base of the leaves contains elastic rubber. The plant can also be used as firewood and charcoal, and it’s nutritionally rich.

Furthermore, Silkvine plays a crucial role in windbreaks, sand fixation, and soil and water conservation.

28. Peristeria Elata Hook

Peristeria Elata Hook

Peristeria Elata Hook, popularly known as the “Dove Orchid” or “Holy Ghost Orchid,” is a perennial large deciduous herbaceous plant from the Orchidaceae family. The plant is densely clustered with large, egg-shaped pseudobulbs that grow between 4-12 cm tall and 4-8 cm wide.

Each pseudobulb usually has 3-5 oblong leaves that are 30-100 cm long and 6-14 cm wide with distinct veins and a slightly leathery texture.

The inflorescence emerges singly from the base of the pseudobulb, with a sturdy erect stem that can grow over 100 cm tall and holds more than ten flowers.

Flowers typically emerge with new leaves and are arranged spirally, blooming sequentially from bottom to top. Individual flowers are approximately 4-5 cm in diameter, cup-shaped, fleshy, and white with a faint fragrance.

The column and lip of the flower resemble a dove with outstretched wings, giving the orchid its name. It blooms abundantly between July and August.

The Dove Orchid is native to Central America, specifically in countries like Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. It is a terrestrial orchid that grows in the understory of deciduous forests at altitudes ranging from 100-650 meters above sea level.

It can be found in areas with abundant rainfall and humidity, in forest clearings where it gets direct sunlight, or on rocks covered with organic matter.

The Dove Orchid has a prolonged blooming period, with flowers opening consecutively from the bottom to the top.

Each flower measures about 4-5 cm in diameter, is white in color, and emits a faint pleasant scent, making it highly ornamental and valuable for visual appreciation.

29. Perpetual Begonia

Perpetual Begonia

The Perpetual Begonia is a perennial evergreen herbaceous plant from the Begonia family. It has an upright stem that is somewhat fleshy. Its leaves are singular, alternate, glossy, and can be green or have a pale red hue.

The flowers, which range from red to pale pink or white, are arranged in umbrella-like clusters. The plant has both male and female flowers on the same stem, with the male flowers being slightly larger and the female flowers a bit smaller.

The fruit is green with red-winged sides, and the flowering period extends from March to December. The Perpetual Begonia blooms throughout the year, hence its name.

Native to the high-altitude, low-latitude forests of Brazil, the Perpetual Begonia thrives in sunlight and can tolerate a bit of shade. It is sensitive to cold, preferring a warm, slightly humid environment and moist soil.

However, it is adverse to extreme heat and waterlogging. Propagation is primarily through seeds.

The flowers and leaves of the Perpetual Begonia have a bitter taste and cooling nature. They are commonly used fresh for their heat-clearing and detoxifying properties.

The Perpetual Begonia is a favorite for year-round viewing due to its beautiful leaves, which are bright green, delicate, and sometimes turn red.

Thus, it’s not only admired for its blossoms but also for its foliage, making it an excellent choice for indoor ornamental pots in living rooms, studies, and bedrooms.

30. Persicaria Capitata

Persicaria Capitata

Persicaria Capitata, or Knotweed, is a perennial herbaceous plant from the Polygonaceae family. It grows between 10-15 cm tall and has creeping stems.

The leaves are oval or elliptical, pointed at the top, wedge-shaped at the base, with entire margins, and sometimes have dark brown crescent-shaped spots on the upper side.

The flower heads are light red, and the fruit is elongated oval. It blooms from June to September and fruits from August to October.

Knotweed is native to the southwestern regions of China but can also be found in India, Nepal, and Myanmar. It thrives on mountainsides and moist valleys at altitudes ranging from 600 to 3500 meters.

The plant loves sunlight but can tolerate shade. It prefers warm and humid climates, enjoys moist soil but is also drought-resistant, and isn’t particularly picky about soil types. It can be cultivated through seeding or cutting methods.

The entire Knotweed plant can be used medicinally. It possesses properties that clear heat, promote diuresis, invigorate blood, and relieve pain. It can treat bruises, hematuria, urinary dribbling, and sores.

With its vibrant flowers and strong coverage, Knotweed is an excellent choice for ground cover. It can also be used to fill flower beds or adorn rock gardens.

31. Petunia Hybrida

Petunia Hybrida

The Petunia Hybrida, commonly known as Petunia, belongs to the Solanaceae family and the genus Petunia. This perennial herb is often cultivated as an annual or biennial and grows between 20 to 45 cm in height. Its stems sprawl across the ground, coated in a sticky, downy hair.

The leaves are soft, ovate, with smooth edges and are alternately arranged, while the upper leaves are oppositely arranged. The flowers are funnel-shaped and can be double-flowered, appearing spherical.

They come in shades of white, purple, and various reds, often with contrasting borders, and bloom beautifully from April until frost. Its fruit is a capsule, and it produces tiny seeds. Originally native to South America, Petunias are now popular worldwide.

With their large, abundant flowers, prolonged blooming period, and rich color palette, Petunias make excellent additions to flower beds and pots.

They can also be naturally cluster-planted, or used as cut flowers. In suitable climates or when grown in greenhouses, they can bloom year-round.

Petunias are versatile, ideal for flower bed designs, flower trough arrangements, landmark placements, window sill decorations, and home decor.

32. Petunia Hybrida hort. ex Vilm.

Petunia Hybrida hort. ex Vilm.

The Petunia Hybrida hort. ex Vilm. is an annual herbaceous plant from the Solanaceae family and the Petunia genus. It’s a hybrid species.

The plant can grow up to 60 cm tall, with its stems sprawling on the ground, covered in a layer of sticky downy hair. The leaves are ovate, tapering at the tip, and have a short petiole or almost none.

Flowers emerge singly at the junction of the leaf stalk and stem. The corolla is either white or purple with stripes, in a funnel shape. The fruit is conical, and the seeds are nearly spherical and brown. It blooms from April to November.

Originally from South America, this Petunia variety loves a warm environment with abundant sunlight, qualifying as a long-day plant. It requires ample sunlight during its growth phase.

Under cool, short-day conditions, its stem and leaves grow lushly, but flowering becomes challenging. The primary propagation methods are through seeding, cutting, and tissue culture.

The seeds of Petunia Hybrida possess properties to regulate Qi (a concept in traditional Chinese medicine) and kill insects.

Due to its rich flower colors and visual appeal, it has become a primary flower for urban landscaping. The symbolic meaning of the Petunia flower is “peace of mind.”

33. Phalaenopsis Amabilis

Phalaenopsis Amabilis

The Phalaenopsis Amabilis, commonly known as the Moth Orchid, belongs to the Orchidaceae family and is a perennial herb.

The plant has a short stem, often enveloped by leaf sheaths. The leaves are somewhat fleshy; the upper side is green, while the underside is purple. These leaves are elliptical or oblong and have either a sharp or blunt tip with a short and wide sheath.

The flowers are white with diamond-shaped petals that have a rounded tip and a narrow base resembling a short claw, featuring net-like veins. They bloom from April to June.

The name Phalaenopsis originates from Greek, meaning “resembling a butterfly,” which aptly describes the flower’s appearance, akin to a butterfly in flight.

Moth Orchids are found both in Taiwan, China, and the Philippines. They prefer warm, humid, and semi-shaded environments.

They are not frost-tolerant and are sensitive to drought, strong sunlight, and waterlogging. They thrive best when planted in loose, well-draining media like bark chunks or moss.

Due to these preferences, they are often found on tree trunks in tropical and subtropical forests at low altitudes. Their propagation is typically done by dividing the plant.

Primarily grown for ornamental purposes, Moth Orchids do not have medicinal or edible properties. However, they can absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen at night.

Additionally, they can increase indoor humidity and help purify the air. Moth Orchids have brought significant economic value to many countries and regions.

Culturally, these orchids are often referred to as the “exquisite princess,” symbolizing the elegance, beauty, and refined charm of women.

34. Phlox Drummondii

Phlox Drummondii

The Phlox Drummondii is a member of the Polemoniaceae family and is also known as Annual Phlox, Little Blue Phlox, or Drummond’s Phlox.

It’s an annual herbaceous plant with an erect stem that grows between 15-45 cm tall, either unbranched or with branches, and covered in glandular hairs.

Phlox Drummondii enjoys warmth, is somewhat frost-resistant but dislikes extreme heat. It is native to Mexico.

The plant boasts a rich variety of flower colors and is used for flower beds, borders, and rock gardens. It’s also suitable as a potted plant for indoor decoration. Taller varieties of this plant can be used as cut flowers.

35. Pholidota Chinensis

Pholidota Chinensis

Pholidota Chinensis, commonly known in traditional Chinese medicine, is derived from the pseudobulbs or the entire plant of the Pholidota Chinensis, a member of the orchid family. It is distributed widely across Eastern, Southern, and Southwestern parts of China.

It’s used in traditional Chinese medicine for its medicinal properties which include nourishing yin and moistening the lungs, clearing heat and detoxifying, promoting diuresis, and removing stasis.

It’s often prescribed for conditions such as lung heat cough, coughing up blood, dizziness, headaches, nocturnal emissions, sore throat, rheumatic pain, swelling due to damp-heat, dysentery, leucorrhea, accumulation of heat toxins, scrofula, and injuries from falls.

The plant often grows on broad-leaved trees, beneath them, or on the rocks beside ditches, predominantly found at altitudes between 1000 to 1200m in the Eastern, Southern, and Southwestern parts of China.

36. Photinia Serratifolia

Photinia Serratifolia

Photinia Serratifolia, also known as Chinese Photinia, belongs to the Rosaceae family and is an evergreen tree. The branches are brown-gray in color; its scales are brown without hairs.

The leaves are leathery, shaped as long-elliptical, oblong-ovate, or obovate-elliptical. It produces white, nearly round petals and its fruits start as red spheres, later turning to brown-purple.

The seeds are smooth, brown, and egg-shaped. The flowering period is from April to May, with the fruiting period in October.

Originally from China, the Chinese Photinia thrives in warm, humid climates. It favors light and can tolerate a little shade. It’s hardy against short-term temperatures of -15℃.

When it comes to soil preference, it isn’t particularly picky but grows best in fertile, moist, deep, well-draining, slightly acidic sandy soil. Reproduction methods include seed propagation and cutting propagation.

Chinese Photinia is often planted in gardens, along roadsides, and at street intersections. Its canopy can be trimmed and shaped, and its wood is used to make wheel components and tool handles.

Its seeds can be pressed for oil which can be used in soap-making, the roots can be used to make roast glue, and the fruit can also serve as an ingredient for brewing alcohol. The dried leaves have medicinal properties, known for diuretic, fever-reducing, and analgesic effects.

37. Physostegia Virginiana

Physostegia Virginiana

Physostegia Virginiana, commonly known as the Obedient Plant or False Dragonhead, belongs to the mint family (Lamiaceae) and is a perennial herbaceous plant. It can grow up to a height of 1 meter.

The stems are clustered and erect with a quadrangular shape. Its leaves are lanceolate, bright green, and have serrated margins. It features a terminal spike-like inflorescence with flowers that come in shades of pink, white, and pale purple-red.

The flowers arranged on the spike are reminiscent of the sesame flowers, but denser, leading to its nickname as the “sesame flower.” It blooms from August to October.

Native to North America, the Obedient Plant prefers warm climates but is relatively cold-hardy. It’s drought-resistant, tolerates rich soil, and is highly adaptive.

The plant is ideal for planting in sunny spots in street green spaces, residential green areas, flower beds, and floral strips, producing a visually appealing effect.

38. Pierr De Ronsard

Pierr De Ronsard

Pierr De Ronsard is a variety of rose cherished by people worldwide. It’s named after the 16th-century poet, Pierre de Ronsard, who was often referred to as the “Rose Poet.”

The flowers have a diameter ranging from 7cm to 10cm, with a petal count of 55-70. The fragrance of the flower is mild, and its color is a lovely white-pink shade. The size of the plant can range between 100-365cm.

The naming of this rose after Pierre de Ronsard underscores the historical significance and beauty associated with both the poet and the flower.

39. Pitahaya Flower

Pitahaya Flower

Pitahaya Flower, commonly known as Dragon Fruit, belongs to the Cactaceae family and the Hylocereus genus. It holds significant economic value. This plant is an amalgamation of “fruit,” “flower,” “vegetable,” “healthcare,” and “medicine,” making it an invaluable treasure.

The dried Dragon Fruit flower, processed using advanced microwave wall-breaking technology, is a health product suitable for both culinary and medicinal use.

Not only are the flowers of the Dragon Fruit visually stunning, but they are also edible, with a delightful taste and remarkable health benefits. They are rich in pollen and anthocyanins, boasting high nutrition, low-calorie, low-fat content, and being abundant in vitamins and amino acids.

40. Platycodon Grandiflorus

Platycodon Grandiflorus

Platycodon Grandiflorus, commonly known as Balloon Flower, is a perennial herbaceous plant of the Campanulaceae family and Platycodon genus. It features a robust root system and generally does not branch out, with a few branching at the upper parts.

Its leaves are ovate, ovate-elliptical, or lanceolate with finely serrated margins. The flower is typically fused-petaled, exhibiting shades of blue or purple.

The fruit comes in shapes like spherical or inverted egg-shaped. The blooming period is from July to September, while the fruiting season spans from August to October.

The Balloon Flower is native to Northern China, the Korean Peninsula, the Russian Far East, and is also found in Japan. This plant loves sunlight, prefers a cool environment, and is both cold and drought-tolerant.

It dislikes waterlogged conditions and thrives in fertile, moist, well-draining, and loose soil. The propagation of Balloon Flower is through seeds, with both direct sowing and seedling transplanting methods.

The Balloon Flower is medicinal and is used to treat symptoms like sore throat, loss of voice, and cough with abundant phlegm.

Fresh roots can also be consumed as a vegetable. Balloon Flower pickles are one of the specialties of the Korean cuisine. Furthermore, Balloon Flower serves as an ornamental plant, symbolizing “everlasting love” in floriography.

41. Plumbago Auriculata

Plumbago Auriculata

Plumbago Auriculata, commonly referred to as Cape Leadwort or Cape Plumbago, is an evergreen sub-shrub of the Plumbaginaceae family. It grows up to 1 meter in height. The leaves are thin, diamond-shaped, ovate to narrowly ovate.

The inflorescences are racemose, with the flower crowns being a light blue to bluish-white color. It blooms between June to September and again from December to April of the following year.

Native to the southern parts of South Africa, Cape Leadwort thrives in sunlight and warm conditions. It’s not frost-tolerant but can tolerate some shade.

Direct intense sunlight should be avoided. It prefers fertile, well-draining, sandy loam soil. The optimal growing temperature ranges from 22°C to 30°C. It’s commonly found growing on grassy slopes or terraces.

For propagation, methods like cuttings and division are commonly used, but it can also be grown from seeds.

Cape Leadwort has a sweet and spicy flavor, and it’s considered warm in traditional medicine. It’s known to invigorate the blood, relieve pain, resolve bruises, and alleviate spasms.

It’s used to treat symptoms of gastritis, gastric ulcers, biliary ascariasis, cholecystitis, and pain caused by roundworms. In India, its root is used to treat warts. The flower symbolizes “indifference” and “melancholy.”

42. Plumeria Rubra

Plumeria Rubra

Plumeria Rubra, often called Frangipani or Red Frangipani, belongs to the Apocynaceae family. It’s a deciduous shrub or small tree. The branches are stout and fleshy; the leaves are thick and papery.

Flowers are terminal, with an umbellate inflorescence; the flower stalk is fleshy and pale red. The calyx is small and ovate, while the corolla is white on the outside, with a pale red streak on one side and yellow on the inside.

It blooms from May to October, and although it rarely bears fruit when cultivated, the fruiting period typically spans from July to December.

Frangipani loves a hot, moist, and sun-rich environment but can also grow in semi-shade. It’s drought-tolerant, dislikes waterlogged conditions, and has good resilience. However, it’s not frost-tolerant, and the ideal growing temperature is between 20°C to 26°C.

If exposed to temperatures below 8°C for extended periods during winter, it may suffer from frost damage. The plant is originally from Mexico.

Frangipani is highly valued for its ornamental qualities. The entire tree presents an elegant and balanced appearance.

The trunk is robust, exuding grandeur. Its canopy is umbrella-like, filled with green leaves, and when in bloom, the tree is adorned with numerous flowers, providing a vibrant contrast to the foliage and emitting a delicate fragrance.

43. Podranea Ricasoliana

Podranea Ricasoliana

Podranea Ricasoliana, also known as Pink Trumpet Vine or Zimbabwe Creeper, belongs to the Bignoniaceae family. It is native to Africa. The calyx is inflated, and the ovary is elongated oval in shape.

The fruit is a linear pod with flexible, leathery, and entire margins. It’s originally from Africa and has been introduced for cultivation purposes. The plant has been cultivated in Guangzhou, China.

44. Polygonum Orientale

Polygonum Orientale

Polygonum Orientale, commonly referred to as Prince’s Feather or Oriental Lady’s Thumb, is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Polygonaceae family. The plant can grow up to 2 meters in height. The stem is upright, robust, and densely covered with long soft hairs.

The leaves are broadly ovate or broadly elliptical, with the base being round or nearly heart-shaped. They often have green herbaceous wings along the top. Its flowers are arranged in a spike-like inflorescence, which slightly droops.

Several of these inflorescences form a conical shape. The achene is nearly spherical and is enclosed within the persistent perianth. It flowers from June to September and fruits from August to October.

Prince’s Feather is native to China and Australia. It thrives in warm and humid environments. The plant is not particularly demanding regarding soil types. It enjoys water but is also drought-tolerant, showcasing strong adaptability. It’s typically propagated by seeds.

In traditional medicine, Prince’s Feather has a pungent taste, is neutral in nature, and slightly toxic. It is associated with the liver and spleen meridians.

The plant has therapeutic properties of dispelling wind and relieving dampness and can be used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Its fruits contain starch and can be used to brew alcohol. It can be used as fodder for cattle and sheep. Pigs especially like it during their young stage.

When placed on a windowsill or computer desk, it not only increases indoor humidity but also offers ornamental value. The flower symbolizes ambition and yearning.

45. Pontederia Cordata

Pontederia Cordata

Pontederia Cordata, commonly known as Pickerelweed, belongs to the Pontederiaceae family. It is a perennial aquatic or semi-aquatic herbaceous plant that can grow up to 150 centimeters in height. The plant has rhizomes from which leaves sprout in clusters.

The cylindrical leaf stalks are green. The leaves are large, deep green, and smooth on the surface. The leaf shape varies but is mostly ovate-lanceolate.

The flower stalk stands upright, typically rising above the leaves. Its flowers are clustered in a spike at the top, each spike densely packed with dozens to hundreds of small blue-purple round flowers.

Two petals on the top of each flower have two green-yellow spots, and they have a semi-transparent texture. It flowers and bears fruit from May to October.

Pickerelweed is distributed across tropical and temperate regions of the Americas. It can be grown in home pots or ponds. It’s also widely used for landscape beautification, planted alongside rivers, ponds, and artificial wetlands.

When interplanted with plants like water lettuce, flowering rush, water onion, and canna, it provides ornamental value.

46. Portulaca Grandiflora

Portulaca Grandiflora

Portulaca Grandiflora, commonly known as Moss Rose, is an annual herbaceous plant that grows between 10 to 30 centimeters in height. Its stems are either prostrate or ascending and are purplish-red, branching extensively at the nodes where tufts of hair grow.

Leaves are densely clustered at the tip of the stems, with the lower leaves being irregularly alternate.

The leaves are fine and cylindrical, hairless. Flowers, either solitary or in small clusters, bloom at the end of the stems. They have a diameter of 2.5 to 4 centimeters and open during the day, closing at night.

There are 8-9 leaf-like bracts in a whorl around the base of the flower, covered in white long soft hairs. The petals can be single or double, ovate with a slight indent at the tip, ranging in color from red, purple to pale white. The fruit is nearly elliptical with a lid-like opening.

The tiny seeds are numerous, round-kidney-shaped, and have a diameter of less than 1 millimeter. The flowering period is from June to September, and the fruiting period is from August to November.

Moss Rose is native to Brazil. The whole plant is used medicinally, known for its effects in dispelling blood stasis, relieving pain, reducing heat, and detoxifying. It can be used to treat sore throat, burns, injuries from falls, and swellings from boils or infections.

47. Portulaca Grandiflora

Portulaca Grandiflora

Portulaca Grandiflora, commonly known as Purslane, is a perennial herbaceous plant of the Scrophulariaceae family. Its stem is upright, and the plant can grow up to 55 centimeters in height.

The leaves have short stems or are nearly sessile, with leaf blades that are triangular-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, and sometimes just ovate. The flowers are solitary, growing in the axils of the stems or branches.

The part of the stem with flowers ranges from 4-11 centimeters long; the flower stalk is 1-2 millimeters long and softly hairy. The calyx is about 2 millimeters long when flowering, with soft hairs along its veins and short marginal hairs.

The corolla is purple-blue, 9-13 millimeters long, with short soft hairs outside and sparse soft hairs inside at the throat. It flowers and bears fruit from April to July.

Purslane typically grows beside ponds, fields, or damp spots alongside roads.

The entire plant is used in traditional medicine, known for its effects in cooling and detoxifying the body, promoting blood circulation, reducing blood stasis, reducing swelling and pain, and its anti-cancer properties. It has a cold nature and sour taste.

The plant contains various vitamins, trace elements, and amino acids. It’s believed to cool the blood, detoxify, disperse blood stasis, relieve pain, reduce swelling, and clear heat while promoting diuresis.

48. Potentilla Fruticosa

Potentilla Fruticosa

Potentilla Fruticosa, commonly known as Shrubby Cinquefoil, belongs to the Rosaceae family. It’s a shrub that grows between 0.5 to 2 meters in height and branches out extensively, with bark that peels off longitudinally.

The leaves are pinnate with usually two pairs of leaflets, occasionally with three; the leaflets are oblong, oval-oblong, or ovate-lanceolate. Flowers, either solitary or in small clusters, grow at the top of branches and have a diameter of 2.2 to 3 centimeters.

The petals are yellow and broadly ovate. The fruit is nearly ovate, brownish, 1.5 millimeters long, and covered in long soft hairs. It flowers and bears fruit from June to September.

Shrubby Cinquefoil is widespread in the mountainous regions of the northern temperate zone, recorded in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. It grows on mountain slopes, gravelly slopes, shrubs, and forest edges, between altitudes of 1000 to 4000 meters.

It’s a hardy plant, cold-resistant, prefers moisture but not standing water, drought-resistant, and loves sunlight. In shaded areas, its growth is usually stunted. It’s not picky about soil and can grow well in sandy loam and plain sand. It likes fertile soil but can tolerate poor ones.

Shrubby Cinquefoil has dense branches and leaves with bright yellow flowers, making it suitable as an ornamental shrub in gardens or as a low hedge. Its leaves and fruit contain tannins, which can be used to produce rosin.

Young leaves can be used as a substitute for tea. Both flowers and leaves are used in traditional medicine, believed to benefit the spleen, remove dampness, clear summer-heat, and regulate menstruation.

49. Primula Malacoides

Primula Malacoides

Primula Malacoides, commonly known as Fairy Primrose, is a perennial herbaceous plant from the Primulaceae family. The leaves are rosette at the base of the stem, with several shallow lobes, and the edges of these lobes are irregularly serrated.

The flower stalk bears several whorls of umbellate inflorescences, with each whorl consisting of numerous small flowers in shades of pink, pale blue-purple, or near white. The fruit is a spheroidal capsule.

The blooming period is from May to August, and the fruiting period is from August to the following June. Its name, which translates as “announcing spring flower,” is due to its early blooming nature.

Fairy Primrose is native to China. It cannot tolerate high temperatures or direct sunlight and thrives in cool, moist environments with well-draining, humus-rich, neutral soil.

Propagation of Fairy Primrose is typically through seeds or division. Medicinally, it is believed to have properties that cool and dry dampness, clear liver and gallbladder fire, and stop bleeding.

It is used to treat conditions like cough due to lung heat, swollen throat, mouth and tongue ulcers, red eyes from liver inflammation, abscesses, febrile seizures in children, acute gastroenteritis, and dysentery.

50. Protea Cynaroides

Protea Cynaroides

Protea Cynaroides, commonly known as King Protea due to its crown-like appearance, belongs to the Proteaceae family and is a perennial evergreen shrub.

The stem is stout with bright green leaves. The flower resembles a round ball; some of its bracts fully open, making the flower appear flat, while others remain semi-closed, giving the flower a comparatively elongated appearance.

The core of the flower and the bracts have a layer of fine fuzz. The blooming period is from November to the following May.

King Protea is native to South Africa. It thrives in warm, slightly dry environments with ample sunlight.

The plant is drought and poor soil tolerant but doesn’t like waterlogging. It prefers to grow in loose, fertile, well-draining, slightly acidic soil. The primary methods of propagation are seeding and cutting.

The King Protea has a prolonged flowering period, which is why it’s often said to “bloom for a long time without wilting.”

Coupled with its large and vibrant floral structures and elegant appearance, the King Protea is highly esteemed by flower enthusiasts and the general public. It is the national flower of South Africa.

51. Prunus Blireana ‘Meiren’

Prunus Blireana 'Meiren’

Prunus Blireana ‘Meiren’ is a deciduous shrub or small tree belonging to the Rosaceae family, Prunus genus. The leaves are alternately arranged, broad ovate or ovate, and are purplish-red in color. The flowers are light purple-red and can be semi-double or double-petaled.

Both flowers and leaves emerge together and are densely arranged with a pleasant fragrance. The fruits are spherical and bright red. The flowering period is from March to April, while the fruiting period is from May to June.

Prunus Blireana ‘Meiren’ is native to the United States. It prefers a warm, moist environment with ample sunlight. It has a good cold tolerance, able to withstand temperatures as low as -30°C in winter.

It is sensitive to waterlogging but can thrive in loamy, sandy loam, or clayey soils. It also shows some tolerance to slightly saline-alkaline conditions. For propagation, grafting and layering methods are typically employed.

This plant is mainly cultivated for its ornamental flowers and leaves. It’s perfect for beautifying gardens and courtyards. It can be planted in gardens, used as a street tree, or even potted for ornamental purposes.

52. Prunus Discoidea

Prunus Discoidea

Prunus Discoidea is a plant from the Rosaceae family, Prunus genus. It’s a small tree, reaching heights of 2-3.5 meters, with grayish-white bark. The young twigs are purple-brown in color and might be sparsely hairy or lose their hairs over time.

The winter buds are ovoid and hairless. The leaves are inverted ovate or elongated oval-shaped. The upper surface is dark green with sparse soft hairs, while the underside is pale green with more pronounced hairs when young.

Flowers bloom before the leaves or sometimes simultaneously in umbel-like arrangements, typically with two flowers, though sometimes with one or three. The petals are pink, elongated oval-shaped, with a bifurcated tip.

The flower has 32-40 stamens, and the pistil is hairless with an enlarged stigma. The fruit is red, and when mature, has a diameter of about 1 cm with slightly ridged kernels. The flowering period is in March, while the fruiting period is in May.

It naturally grows in valley forests or shrubs near streams, at altitudes ranging from 200 to 1100 meters.

53. Prunus Lannesiana

Prunus Lannesiana

Prunus Lannesiana (Japanese Late Cherry) is a deciduous tree species that belongs to the Rosaceae family and the Prunus genus. The twigs are stout and hairless.

The leaves are ovate or elliptical, with a long tail-like tapering point and serrated edges with long awn-like teeth. The flower stalks are short, sometimes absent, with an umbel-like arrangement. The flower petals are concave at the tips, either pink or near-white in color.

The fruit is ovate, turning glossy black when mature. The flowering period is in April, and the fruiting period spans May to June.

Originally native to Japan, the Japanese Late Cherry prefers sunlight, is cold-hardy, and enjoys moisture.

It thrives in fertile, deep, well-draining, slightly acidic soil but can also adapt to neutral soils. It doesn’t tolerate saline-alkaline conditions. Propagation is typically done through seeds, cuttings, or grafting.

The flower buds of the Japanese Late Cherry have medicinal value for their antitussive (cough-suppressing) and wind-dispelling properties. The Japanese government has designated March 15th to April 15th as the Cherry Blossom Festival.

54. Prunus Lannesiana ‘Alborosea’

Prunus Lannesiana 'Alborosea’

Prunus Lannesiana ‘Alborosea’ (Pu Xian Elephant Cherry) is a tree species with branches that slightly droop downwards. Native to Japan, it is mainly found growing in the country. The name “Pu Xian Elephant Cherry” is inspired by its unique flower structure.

During the bud phase, it displays an old red color. When the flowers bloom, the outer petals have a pale red border, with a near-white center.

Notably, two of its pistils curve outward resembling elephant tusks. This gives it the name, which references the great elephant ridden by the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra (known as Pu Xian in Chinese).

Pu Xian Elephant Cherry loves sunlight, is cold-hardy, and can winter outdoors even in Beijing. It tolerates transplanting well and is also resilient to poor soil, drought, wind, environmental pollution, and demonstrates strong sprouting ability.

As a result, it is a preferred species for urban greening and park landscapes and is especially suitable for large-scale cultivation.

55. Prunus Lannesiana ‘Superba’

runus Lannesiana 'Superba’

Prunus Lannesiana ‘Superba’ (Matsu-zuki Cherry) Prunus Lannesiana ‘Superba’ belongs to the Rosaceae family and is a stunning variety of the Japanese Late Cherry.

It blooms in early April. This cherry variety is particularly beautiful with its flexible branches that droop down, giving the tree an umbrella-like shape.

The flowering period is in early April when both the flowers and leaves appear. The flower buds start as red and gradually turn white as they bloom.

Each flower has a diameter of about 5 cm and consists of around 30 petals. The flower stems are slender, causing the flowers to dangle downwards, and the pistils are leaf-like. The young leaves are green in color.

56. Prunus Mume

Prunus Mume

Prunus Mume (Gong-fen Plum) Prunus Mume, also known as Gong-fen Plum, belongs to the Rosaceae family and is part of the true plum lineage, specifically the straight-branch plum category of the Gong-fen type. Its flowers range from semi-double to fully double and display varying shades of red.

It’s a deciduous tree that can grow up to 10 meters in height. The trunk is brownish-purple with vertical mottling. The twigs are thin, hairless, and mostly green. The leaves are broadly ovate to ovate, tapering to a pointed or tail-like tip.

The base of the leaves is broadly wedge-shaped or nearly round, with finely pointed serrations. The leaves are hairy only along the veins on the underside.

The flowers bloom in winter or early spring before the leaves emerge. The fruit is spherical and yellowish-green, maturing between May and June.

Gong-fen Plum is found in the wild in the southwestern mountainous regions of China. It prefers a climate that is sunny, warm, and slightly humid. It has a certain degree of cold resistance and can tolerate poorer soils.

Propagation methods include grafting, cutting, layering, and seeding.

57. Prunus Mume Albo-Plena

Prunus Mume Albo-Plena

Prunus Mume ‘Albo-Plena’ (Yu-die Plum) Prunus Mume ‘Albo-Plena’, commonly known as the Yu-die Plum, belongs to the Rosaceae family and apricot genus. It’s a perennial shrub cultivated across China, especially in the provinces south of the Yangtze River.

It is also found in Japan and Korea. The blossoms of Yu-die Plum can be extracted for their essence. The flowers, leaves, roots, and kernels can all be used medicinally.

The fruit is edible, can be salt-preserved, or made into pickles. It can also be smoked to produce “Wu Mei,” a medicinal product known for its cough-suppressing, anti-diarrheal, saliva-inducing, and thirst-quenching properties.

Additionally, the plum tree can resist nematode damage, making it suitable as a rootstock for stone fruit trees.

58. Prunus Mume Pendula

Prunus Mume Pendula

Prunus Mume ‘Pendula’ (Drooping Plum) Prunus Mume ‘Pendula’ belongs to the Rosaceae family and is a small tree. It has light grey or greenish bark; the twigs are green, smooth, and hairless.

The leaves are ovate or elliptical, usually with small sharp serrations, greyish-green, and when young, are short and softly hairy on both sides.

Flowers are solitary, intensely fragrant, with usually reddish-brown calyces, and the petals are ovate, ranging from white to pink.

The fruit is nearly spherical, yellow or greenish-white, and covered in soft hair with a sour taste. The flowering period is in winter and early spring, while the fruiting period is from May to June.

Originating from the southern regions of China, this tree is also found in Japan and Korea. It prefers a warm environment with ample sunlight, is relatively cold-resistant, and responds well to pruning.

It thrives in fertile, well-draining, slightly acidic sandy loam. Common propagation methods include budding and grafting.

Due to its long and drooping branches, the Drooping Plum harmonizes beautifully with water bodies. Its fresh flowers can also be extracted for their essence.

Like the Yu-die Plum, it can resist nematode damage and serves as a rootstock for stone fruit trees. Gifting this tree symbolizes nobility, loyalty, and perseverance.

59. Prunus Persica

Prunus Persica

Prunus Persica (Peach Blossom) The Peach Blossom belongs to the Rosaceae family and is a perennial tree. The trunk is grey-brown, and its leaves are elliptical-lanceolate, alternating, and have fine serrated edges.

The flowers bloom before the leaves appear, and they bear nearly spherical drupes (peaches). The blooming period is from March to April, while the fruiting season spans from June to September.

Peach blossoms are native to central and northern China. They are cultivated in warm regions such as France and the Mediterranean.

These trees thrive in warm, moist environments with ample sunlight. They are both cold and heat tolerant. They prefer fertile, well-draining loamy or sandy soils and cannot tolerate alkaline conditions.

Propagation is generally done by seeding or grafting. Peach blossoms have practical uses. Their fruit can be consumed, and they have medicinal properties as well.

60. Prunus Persica

Prunus Persica

Prunus Persica ‘Bai Bi’ (White Jade Peach) Also known as White Jade, this is a cultivated variety of peach in the Rosaceae family. Its flowering period is from early to late April, and the ovary develops into an elongated spherical fruit.

White Jade belongs to the early-maturing oil peach variety. The Bai Bi Peach is native to China. These trees enjoy sunlight and are drought-tolerant but do not thrive in humid environments. They prefer a warm climate and have good cold resistance.

The gum exuded from the peach tree, commonly known as “peach gum,” can be used as an adhesive. It is a polysaccharide that, when hydrolyzed, can produce arabinose, galactose, xylose, rhamnose, and glucuronic acid. Peach gum is edible and also has medicinal uses.

61. Prunus Sargentii Rehder

Prunus Sargentii Rehder

Prunus Sargentii Rehder (Sargent’s Cherry) Prunus Sargentii Rehder, commonly known as Sargent’s Cherry, belongs to the Rosaceae family and the genus Prunus. It is native to Hokkaido, Japan, and is suitable for cultivation in cold regions due to its high ornamental value.

The tree naturally occurs in Japan, South Korea, and Russia. In 1972, the late Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka presented this tree to China as a commemorative gift during the restoration of Sino-Japanese diplomatic relations.

It prefers sunlight, can tolerate some shade, and is highly cold-resistant. The tree thrives in a humid climate and well-draining, fertile soil.

62. Prunus Subhirtella

Prunus Subhirtella

Prunus Subhirtella (Cherry Blossom) Prunus Subhirtella, commonly known as Cherry Blossom, belongs to the Rosaceae family and the subgenus Sakura. The term “Cherry Blossom” refers collectively to all species and cultivated varieties within this subgenus.

There are more than 300 varieties of cherry blossoms. Cherry blossoms can be divided into two types: single-petaled and multi-petaled. While single-petaled varieties can bear fruit, most of the multi-petaled types do not.

The flowers usually bloom in March, either simultaneously with the leaves or shortly after, varying with the seasons.

Cherry blossoms are originally from the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere around the Himalayas. However, they can be found growing in various parts of the world, with Japan being one of the primary regions where they flourish.

63. Prunus Triloba

Prunus Triloba

Prunus Triloba, commonly known as the Flowering Almond, is a shrub or small tree belonging to the Rosaceae family and the Prunus genus. The branches of this plant are expansive with numerous short twigs.

Its leaves are broadly elliptical to ovate with a short tapering tip and have coarse serrations or double serrations along the margins. The flowering and fruiting period ranges from April to July. Flowers bloom before the emergence of the leaves.

The stamens are shorter than the petals, while the pistil is slightly longer than the stamens. Its fruit is nearly spherical and red with thin flesh. Named “Flowering Almond” because its leaves resemble those of elm trees and its flowers are reminiscent of plum blossoms.

Flowering Almond prefers warm and humid conditions and is somewhat cold-resistant. It typically grows at low to mid-elevations, at the edges of forests, and in shrub areas. The plant can be cultivated through grafting or seeding. Its twigs and seeds have medicinal properties.

The seeds are known to moisturize dryness, lubricate the intestines, promote the movement of qi, and have diuretic effects. Its branches can be used to treat jaundice and urinary problems.

64. Puerariae Radix

Puerariae Radix

Puerariae Radix (Kudzu Root) Puerariae Radix, commonly known as Kudzu Root, is the dried root of the leguminous plant Pueraria. It’s traditionally called “Wild Kudzu.”

The roots are harvested during the autumn and winter seasons, freshly sliced into thick pieces or small chunks, and then dried. It tastes sweet and slightly spicy and is cool in nature.

The root is known for its medicinal properties which include releasing muscle tension, reducing fever, inducing the eruption of rashes, promoting salivation to relieve thirst, raising yang to stop diarrhea, facilitating the flow of meridians, and alleviating the effects of alcohol poisoning.

It is commonly used to treat symptoms such as fever and headache due to external factors, neck and back pain, thirst, diabetes-like symptoms, measles rashes that do not emerge properly, dysentery, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, stroke-induced paralysis, chest pains due to stagnation, and damage from alcohol consumption.

65. Punica Granatum

Punica Granatum

Punica granatum (Pomegranate Flower) Punica granatum is a plant belonging to the Punicaceae family. The pomegranate flower has a calyx that is red or pale yellow, with lobes that slightly spread outwards and are ovate-triangular in shape.

Near the top outside of the calyx, there’s a green glandular structure, and the edges have small papillae. The petals are relatively large and can be red, yellow, or white, with a rounded tip. They bloom from May to July.

The pomegranate flower originates from Central Asia, particularly in Iran and Afghanistan. It enjoys sunlight and warm climates and prefers fertile, moist, well-draining, and calcareous soil. It is drought-resistant and can tolerate infertile soils but is not cold-resistant.

Therefore, when it’s cultivated in pots, it’s best to repot during the spring budding period. The pomegranate flower is propagated primarily through seeds, cuttings, and grafting.

Medicinally, the pomegranate flower is used to treat nosebleeds, hematemesis, traumatic bleeding, menstrual disorders, excessive menstrual bleeding, leukorrhea , and otitis media.

The pomegranate flower, with its passionate and unrestrained beauty, symbolizes prosperity and wealth. Its deep and bright red hue is both captivating and auspicious, making it a great choice for bonsai creations.

66. Pyrostegia Venusta

Pyrostegia Venusta

Pyrostegia Venusta (Flame Vine) Pyrostegia Venusta, commonly known as Flame Vine, is a climbing plant that belongs to the Bignoniaceae family. The tips of its twigs have thread-like tendrils. Its leaves are opposite and ovate in shape.

The calyx is bell-shaped and orange-red, with elongated petals. The stamen is thread-like with anthers that fork open. The fruit is leathery and boat-shaped. The flowering period is from January to June.

During early summer, the red-orange flowers hang in bunches, resembling firecrackers, hence the name “Flame Vine.”

Flame Vine is native to Brazil in South America. It is highly adaptable and prefers warm, humid environments with abundant sunlight and good air circulation.

While it isn’t very particular about soil types, it grows best in well-draining soils rich in organic matter, such as loam and sandy loam. The propagation of Flame Vine is mainly through cuttings and layering.

67. Pyrus


Pyrus (Pear Blossom) Pyrus, commonly known as the pear tree, belongs to the Rosaceae family.

The pear tree is a deciduous tree, with leaves that are round and resemble those of the large-leaf poplar. Its trunk is protected by rough bark, and its branches spread out umbrella-like.

In the spring, it blossoms with pure white flowers that look like snowflakes and have a faint fragrance. Besides being eaten fresh, pears can also be used to make wine, pear paste, dried pears, and for medicinal purposes.

There are approximately 25 species worldwide, distributed across Asia, Europe, and North Africa. Pear blossoms are known for their effects in moisturizing the lungs, eliminating phlegm, relieving coughs, and counteracting alcohol intoxication.

Folk remedies also suggest that pear blossoms have skin-whitening properties.

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