39 Flowers That Start With M

1. Magnolia Grandiflora

Magnolia Grandiflora

Magnolia Grandiflora, commonly known as the Southern Magnolia, belongs to the Magnoliaceae family and is an evergreen shrub or tree. Its leaves are oval or ovate, with a pointed tip.

The surface of the leaves is dark green, with smooth edges and no serrations, while the underside has sparse velvety hair. The flowers are solitary, situated at the tip of the branches, and resemble the shape of a lotus flower.

They are white with purple filaments and have a refreshing scent. The fruit is a round aggregate fruit with a fuzzy outer layer. When mature, it splits open to reveal red seeds.

The plant flowers in May, and due to the large, lotus-like flowers, it’s referred to as the “Lotus Magnolia.”

Magnolia Grandiflora

The Southern Magnolia is native to the northern regions of the Americas but has since been widely distributed worldwide. It prefers environments with ample sunlight and a warm, moist climate. It thrives in loose, fertile soil.

Saline-alkali soils and low-lying areas are unsuitable for planting. The magnolia can be propagated through seeding or grafting.

The Lotus Magnolia has the ability to absorb various harmful gases, playing a role in air purification. It’s also highly valued for its ornamental properties. The leaves of the Lotus Magnolia have medicinal properties that can help in lowering blood pressure.

The flowers and bark have properties that dispel cold winds, promote the circulation of qi, and relieve pain. In the 1840s, the Lotus Magnolia first bloomed in Parson’s Green Garden in England.

2. Magnolia Liliflora

Magnolia Liliflora

Magnolia Liliflora, commonly known as the Mulan Magnolia or Purple Magnolia, belongs to the Magnoliaceae family and is a deciduous shrub or small tree.

Its flowers, which bloom from February to March, are large, vase-shaped, with petals that are purple or reddish-purple on the outside and nearly white on the inside. The sepals are purple-green.

The Mulan Magnolia can be used in traditional medicine to treat conditions like fishbone stuck in the throat or bronchial issues resulting from cold deficiencies.

The magnolia blooms in early spring, producing large, fragrant, and beautiful flowers, making it suitable for planting in front yards or in clusters along the edge of a lawn.

The magnolia has a long cultivation history and is one of the precious ornamental plants in gardens. The flower buds are as large as the tip of a writing brush, which has led to its nickname “Wooden Pen.”

3. Magnolia Sieboldii

Magnolia Sieboldii

Magnolia Sieboldii, commonly known as Oyama Magnolia, belongs to the Magnoliaceae family. It’s a deciduous small tree that can grow up to 10 meters high.

The young branches are slender with a diameter of about 3mm and are light gray-brown with a silver-gray, long, flat-lying soft hair when young. The leaves are membranous, ovate or broad ovate, with pointed tips.

The flowers bloom simultaneously with the leaves, are white, fragrant, cup-shaped, and have a diameter of 7-10 cm when fully opened. The aggregate fruit turns red when ripe; seeds are heart-shaped with reddish-orange pseudo-arils and a brown outer seed coat.

This magnolia species is distributed across China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan. It grows in mountainous regions at altitudes of 1600-2000 meters. Its wood can be used to make agricultural tools, and essential oils can be extracted from its fragrant flowers.

Due to its beautiful flowers with long pedicels that sway with the wind, it’s a popular ornamental plant in both Chinese and foreign gardens. The flowers can also be used medicinally in extracts.

4. Magnolia Soulangeana

Magnolia Soulangeana

Magnolia Soulangeana, commonly known as the Saucer Magnolia, is a deciduous shrub or small tree in the Magnoliaceae family. Its young branches are hairless, and the leaves are paper-like, ovate with pointed tips.

The flowers bloom before the leaves, ranging in color from light to deep red. The pistils are hairless, cylindrical, with aggregate fruits measuring around 8 cm in length and 3 cm in diameter.

Seeds are deep brown. This magnolia flowers from February to March and bears fruit between September and October.

It’s found in temperate and subtropical regions of China. This plant is adaptable, cold-resistant, drought-resistant, and can tolerate semi-shade.

It requires well-draining soil and is resistant to air pollution, absorbing toxic gases from the atmosphere. It loves sunlight. Its propagation methods include grafting and cuttings.

The bark, leaves, and flowers of Saucer Magnolia can be used to extract aromatic essences. The petals can be consumed or used to scent tea. This magnolia is also cultivated for ornamental purposes in gardens, and its seeds can be pressed for oil for industrial uses.

5. Mahonia Japonica

Mahonia Japonica

Mahonia Japonica, commonly referred to as Japanese Mahonia, belongs to the Berberidaceae family. It’s an evergreen shrub. The leaves are large, numerous, and oval-shaped, with long petioles. The small flowers are polygonal and yellow.

The fruit is spherical, brown, and has spines on its surface. The flowering period is from July to September, and the fruiting period is from September to November.

Originally from China, it’s also cultivated in Japan, the United States, and Indonesia. It typically grows in the understory of forests, shrubs, or in damp and shaded places.

Japanese Mahonia prefers warm, moist climates, has strong cold resistance, but doesn’t tolerate heat well. It’s relatively drought-resistant and prefers well-draining acidic humus-rich soil, highly intolerant to alkaline soils and waterlogging.

Propagation methods include cuttings, division, and seeding, with cuttings being the most commonly used due to the longer germination period of seeds.

Japanese Mahonia has a bitter taste and cold properties. It is used in traditional medicine for its heat-clearing, detoxifying, cough-suppressing, and tonifying properties. It’s primarily used to treat tuberculosis, coughing blood, bone steaming fever, restlessness, and red eyes.

In gardens, it can be planted as hedges, in orchards, vegetable gardens, or as boundary trees. It’s also suitable for planting around buildings and has high ornamental value.

6. Malus Halliana

Malus Halliana

The Weeping Crabapple, Malus halliana, is a deciduous shrub of the Rosaceae family and apple genus. Its crown is sparse and its branches spread out; the twigs are slender, slightly curved, cylindrical, and come in shades of purple or purplish-brown.

Its winter buds are ovate, tapering to a pointed tip, either hairless or only hairy along the edges of the scales, and purple. The leaves are ovate to elliptical or oblong-ovate, finely serrated or almost entire, fairly thick, glossy, with the top surface a deep green, often tinged with purple.

The flower stems are slender, drooping, sparsely hairy, and purple. The petals are ovate, with a short base and pink in color. The fruits are pear-shaped or ovate, slightly purple, and mature very late, with the sepals shedding.

The Weeping Crabapple blooms from March to April and fruits from September to October. Its flowers dangle downwards, which is the inspiration for its name.

The Weeping Crabapple is native to China, growing in shrubs or at the edge of forests at altitudes of 100 to 1500 meters.

It prefers sunlight, warm and humid environments, is shade-intolerant, not very cold-hardy, and doesn’t tolerate waterlogging. It thrives in deep, loose, fertile soil with good drainage and slight stickiness. It primarily propagates through seeding, cuttings, layering, and grafting.

A decoction of the Weeping Crabapple’s flowers can treat irregular menstruation and excessive menstrual bleeding in women.

A decoction of its branches and leaves can treat cholera-induced vomiting and diarrhea, and can also dispel wind and reduce phlegm.

7. Malus Hupehensis

Malus Hupehensis

The Hubei Crabapple, Malus hupehensis, is another tree from the Rosaceae family and apple genus, growing up to 8 meters tall.

Its young twigs initially have short soft hairs which soon fall off, and the older branches are purplish to purplish-brown. The winter buds are ovate with a sharply pointed tip, and the edges of the scales have sparsely grown soft hairs and are dark purple.

The fruits are elliptical or nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter, yellow-green with a touch of red, and the sepals shed. It flowers from April to May and fruits from August to September.

This tree is found in several provinces in China, growing on mountain slopes or in valley forests at altitudes of 50 to 2900 meters. In places like Sichuan and Hubei, China, its root sprouts are used as apple rootstocks.

It’s easy to propagate and has a high success rate when grafted. Its young leaves, when dried, can be used as a tea substitute. They have a slightly bitter taste and are commonly called “Flower Red Tea.”

8. Malus Micromalus Makino

Malus Micromalus Makino

The Xi Fu Crabapple, Malus × micromalus Makino, belongs to the Magnoliopsida class, Rosaceae family, and apple genus.

It’s a small tree, growing between 2.5 to 5 meters tall, with upright branches. It’s an endemic plant to China. The Xi Fu Crabapple thrives in the dry regions of the north and is a popular choice in landscaping projects.

In Chinese fruit nomenclature, the varieties of crabapples are intricate and still await a standardized study. For plant classification, the name Malus × micromalus Makino is temporarily used to represent it comprehensively, without further division into various kinds, to avoid confusion.

Major cultivated varieties include the “Eight-Sided Crabapple” from Huailai, Hebei; “Flat Top Hot Flower Red” and “Cold Flower Red” from Changli; “Fruit Red” and “Fruit Yellow” from Shaanxi; and “Crabapple” and “Green Thorn Crabapple” from Yunnan.

9. Malus ‘Sparkler’

Malus 'Sparkler’

The Sparkler Crabapple, Malus ‘Sparkler’, is a cultivated variety of the North American crabapple from the Rosaceae family and apple genus. It’s a deciduous small tree with a compact form and upright side branches.

The twigs are dark purple, sparsely covered with soft hairs. The new leaves are purplish-red, while mature leaves are bright green on top and pale green underneath. The leaves are ovate, with an almost circular base, tapering to a pointed tip, and serrated edges.

It features an umbrella-shaped inflorescence, blooming in early to mid-April. The flower buds are purplish-red, and the flowers themselves are rose-red, dense, and upright.

The fruiting period is from June to October. The fruits are small, dense, spherical, bright red, with a flat top and upright stem. The sepals remain, and the fruits persist through the winter.

Originally from the U.S., it’s disease-resistant, early-maturing, drought-tolerant, and fast-growing. It’s relatively adaptable to poor soil, and has a strong resistance to cold, as well as saline-alkali soils.

It’s highly adaptable to various environmental conditions, tolerating winter temperatures as low as 36°C (96.8°F) and summer temperatures up to 40°C (104°F). It’s particularly suited to the dry northern regions of China.

10. Malus Spectabilis

Malus Spectabilis

The Showy Crabapple, Malus Spectabilis, is one of China’s renowned ornamental plants. Not only are its flowers vibrant, but its fruit is also aesthetically pleasing. It’s a deciduous small tree with smooth, gray-brown bark.

The leaves are alternate, ranging from elliptical to long elliptical in shape, tapering slightly at the tip, with a wedge-shaped base. The leaf margins have blunt teeth, are glossy deep green on the surface, and gray-green on the underside with short soft hairs.

The leaf stalk is slender with two lanceolate stipules at the base. Flowers cluster in groups of 5 to 7, forming an umbrella-shaped cyme. They are red before blooming and gradually turn pink after opening, mostly semi-double blooms, with a few single-petaled flowers.

The fruit is spherical and yellow-green. It flowers from March to April, with the fruit ripening to a yellow, spherical shape from August to September.

Native to China, the Showy Crabapple prefers warmth, sunlight, and moisture. It’s cold-hardy, somewhat drought-resistant, and thrives in fertile, well-draining soil.

11. Malva Sinensis

Malva Sinensis

Malva Sinensis, commonly known as Chinese Mallow: A biennial or perennial upright herb, reaching a height of 50-90 cm with many branches, sparsely covered in coarse hairs.

Its leaves are heart-shaped or kidney-shaped, with 5-7 rounded tooth-like blunt lobes, hairless on both sides or only lightly haired along the veins. The plant sports clusters of 3-11 flowers, with 3 small oval bracts lightly covered in soft hairs.

Flowers can be purple-red or white, with a diameter of 3.5-4 cm, and have 5 petal-like structures that are spoon-shaped, 2 cm long, with slightly notched tips and hairy bases.

The fruit is a flattened circle, segmented into 9-11 kidney-shaped sections, covered in soft hairs. The seeds are dark brown, kidney-shaped, and 2 mm long. The flowering period spans from May to October.

This flower is ideal for ornamental gardens, suitable for both ground planting and potting. Its white flowers are often used for medicinal purposes. It is a commonly cultivated plant in cities throughout both northern and southern China and can also be found in India.

Floral Meaning: Irony. The satirist active in the ancient Roman Empire, Martial, once said, “Tea made from mallow revives one’s energy.” Thus, mallow became a symbol of the satirist’s source of energy, hence its associated meaning – irony.

12. Malvaviscus Arboreus

Malvaviscus Arboreus

Malvaviscus Arboreus, known as Turk’s Cap: A shrub belonging to the mallow family, it can grow up to 2 meters in height. Its branches are covered with long, soft hairs.

The leaves are ovate to lanceolate with a pointed tip, broad at the base and almost round, nearly hairless on both sides or only lightly haired along the veins, and have stems covered in long, soft hairs. The flowers are singular and grow from leaf axils.

They have spoon-shaped bracts with long, stiff hairs, bell-shaped calyxes also with long, stiff hairs, and are red and tubular in appearance, drooping and only slightly opened at the top. It blooms year-round.

Turk’s Cap is native to Mexico and Colombia. It’s a hardy plant that thrives in warm, humid conditions with abundant sunlight and prefers moist sandy soils.

It’s frost-sensitive but moisture and partially shade-tolerant, though it dislikes waterlogging. Propagation is typically done through stem cuttings.

The Turk’s Cap has a cold nature and a bitter taste. It is mainly used for weeping sores, ulcers, dental and mouth sores, and other related symptoms. It also possesses abilities to absorb moisture, heal wounds, regenerate skin, and alleviate pain.

Turk’s Cap is an ornamental plant ideal for flower beds or hedges. Before the flowers fully bloom, they exude a sweet nectar which can be consumed. Its floral meaning is: Brimming with Talent.

13. Mandragora Nigra

Mandragora Nigra

Mandragora Nigra, commonly known as Black Mandrake, belongs to the Solanaceae family of angiosperms. It is a wild, woody, annual herbaceous plant within this family. The Mandrake plant has alternate single leaves, with the upper part appearing opposite.

The leaves are ovate or broad-ovate in shape, pointed at the tip, asymmetrical at the base, and have smooth edges that sometimes appear wavy or serrated. Mandrake flowers bud in the axils of the leaves, bearing a bell-shaped appearance.

Most of these flowers are white, measuring between 4 and 10 centimeters in length. The fruit of the Mandrake is spherical with a spiky exterior.

When mature, it splits into four sections, revealing seeds that are broadly triangular, flat, and light brown in color. Reproduction of the Mandrake plant is mainly through its seeds.

The height of the Black Mandrake generally ranges from 50 to 200 centimeters, with the root system becoming woody.

In low-latitude regions, Mandrakes can grow into sub-shrubs, thriving in wastelands, arid lands, near residences, on sun-facing slopes, at the edges of forests, and in grasslands.

The entire Mandrake plant is toxic, with the seeds being the most poisonous. The main components of the flower are hyoscyamine, scopolamine, and a small amount of atropine.

Scopolamine is primarily responsible for its anesthetic effects. Besides its anesthetic properties, the Mandrake also serves as a remedy for coughs and asthma, treating cold-induced coughs and phlegm-related conditions.

Whether used as an anesthetic or to treat respiratory issues, it’s crucial to follow medical advice to avoid poisoning.

14. Matricaria Recutita

Matricaria Recutita

Matricaria Recutita, known as Chamomile, is a member of the Asteraceae family and is native to Europe. It’s also referred to as Roman Chamomile or German Chamomile.

These plants share several common features: they are about 30 centimeters tall, with a yellow center, white petals, and slightly fuzzy leaves. Essential oil derived from Chamomile is a popular ingredient in skincare and medicinal products.

Chamomile is known to aid in sleep, alleviate inflammation and pain symptoms, and relieve insomnia caused by nerve-induced skin itching.

Some regions in China also cultivate it extensively for medicinal purposes and tea preparation. Moreover, Chamomile essential oil is one of the gentlest oils available.

15. Matthiola Incana

Matthiola Incana

Matthiola Incana, commonly known as Stock or Brompton Stock, is a biennial or perennial herbaceous plant from the Brassicaceae family. The plant stands at 60 centimeters tall, covered in grayish-white branched soft hairs.

It has an erect, multi-branched stem with oblong to lanceolate or spatulate leaves. The plant displays a terminal and axillary raceme of flowers, which are numerous, relatively large, and vary in shades of purple-red, pale red, or white.

These ovate-shaped flowers are fragrant and striking in their rich color variety. The seeds are dark brown, nearly circular, flat, and about 2 millimeters in diameter. Stocks generally bloom between April and May.

Originally native to the southern Mediterranean regions of Europe, Stocks were symbols of abundance in ancient Greece. Athens used it as an emblem on its banner. It’s also the state flower of Rhode Island, USA, symbolizing “eternal beauty and love.”

This plant prefers cool conditions over shade, light over dryness, rich soil but not excessive fertilization, and requires good drainage. One of its characteristics is a short growth period with high floral yield, extending its availability in the market.

Stocks, with their distinct beauty, are economically beneficial as cut flowers. They are commonly grown in garden beds or greenhouses for their ornamental value. They are believed to have aphrodisiac properties due to their sweet scent, making them a favored fragrance in many cleaning products.

The volatile oils released by these flowers exhibit significant antimicrobial properties, benefiting respiratory health.

16. Mauranthemum Paludosum

Mauranthemum Paludosum

Mauranthemum Paludosum, often referred to as Daisy Chrysanthemum or Creeping Daisy, belongs to the Asteraceae family and is an annual or biennial herbaceous flower. It thrives in warm, moist environments with ample sunlight but is also cold-resistant and can tolerate partial shade.

The ideal soil for its growth is loose, fertile, and well-draining. The plant is short but robust, with abundant flowers that bloom early and for an extended period. When grown in large groups, its vibrant appearance is particularly eye-catching.

The plant features terminal capitulum inflorescences, and after flowering, it produces achene fruit that matures by late May.

The flowers of the Daisy Chrysanthemum come in white and yellow shades. Given its low stature and profusion of flowers, it’s ideal for garden beds and courtyard arrangements. It can also be planted as ground cover.

Its short and robust nature, combined with its early and prolonged flowering period, makes it dazzling when cultivated in patches. It is also suitable for pot cultivation or to enhance early spring flower beds.

17. Mayodendron Igneum

Mayodendron Igneum

Mayodendron Igneum, commonly referred to as the Fire Flower, is an evergreen tree belonging to the family Verbenaceae. It has smooth bark, pinnately compound leaves that are opposite in arrangement with ovate or lanceolate leaflets, tapering at the tip, and glabrous on both sides.

The inflorescences are short racemes found on old stems or lateral short branches with elongated stalks. The calyx is bracteolate, splitting on one side and densely covered with soft hairs.

The corolla is tubular with orange-yellow, round flowers. The fruit is a linear, hairless, drooping, thin-leathery capsule with ovate seeds. It blooms from February to May and fruits from May to September. Its appearance, similar to burning flames, gives it its name, the Fire Flower.

The Fire Flower is native to countries like Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and India. It loves high temperatures and is intolerant to cold, frost, and saline-alkali soil. It prefers a humid environment and can tolerate heat.

It thrives in sunlight but can also withstand semi-shaded conditions. It is moderately drought-resistant. Propagation is primarily through seeds, with grafting as an alternative method.

In the Xishuangbanna region of China, many ethnic minorities consume the Fire Flower as a vegetable. With its vibrant colors and flowers growing on old stems, the tree, when in full bloom, is a sight to behold and has significant ornamental value.

18. Medinilla Magnifica

Medinilla Magnifica

Medinilla Magnifica, known as the Showy Medinilla or Rose Grape, is an evergreen shrub from the Melastomataceae family. Its stem is angular or winged.

The leaves are opposite, typically growing on the upper half of the branches, and are ovate to elliptical in shape with a green surface.

The flowers are in drooping spikes, surrounded by pink or pale pink bracts. The corolla is bell-shaped. The fruits are spherical with persistent calyx at the top. It blooms from April to June.

Originally from tropical Africa and Southeast Asian rainforests, the Showy Medinilla thrives in warm, moist, semi-shaded environments.

It can’t tolerate cold or drought and grows best in humus-rich, loose, fertile, well-draining, slightly acidic soil. The plant is typically propagated by cuttings.

The Showy Medinilla has an elegant growth habit. Its broad, rough, gray-green leaves, coupled with its drooping pink inflorescence, make it one of the most luxurious and beautiful members of the Melastomataceae family.

Both its flowers and fruits are aesthetically pleasing, making it a great ornamental choice.

19. Melastoma Malabathricum

Melastoma Malabathricum

Melastoma Malabathricum, also known by various names such as the Wine Bottle Fruit, Obstetric Medicine, Wild Pomegranate, Uti Fruit, Wengdeng Wood, Mountain Sweet Lady, Mouse Ding Root, and Pointed Leaf Wild Peony, is a shrub species from the Melastomataceae family.

It grows up to 1 meter tall. The stem is either quadrangular or nearly cylindrical with many branches. It is densely covered with adpressed, scaly, rough hairs that are flat with fringe-like edges.

The leaves are tough paper-like, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, or nearly elliptical. They have a tapered tip and a round or near wedge-shaped base, and possess 5 basal veins. The upper surface of the leaf is densely covered with rough hairs.

The capsules are urn-shaped, truncate at the top, and adhere to the persistent sepals that are densely covered with scaly rough hairs.

The seeds are embedded within the fleshy placenta. It flowers between February and May and bears fruit from August to December, occasionally in January.

20. Michelia Champaca

Michelia Champaca

Michelia Champaca, commonly known as Champak or Yellow Champa, belongs to the Magnoliaceae family. It’s an evergreen tree that can grow up to 10 meters tall. Its buds, young branches, young leaves, and petioles are all covered with pale yellow, adpressed soft hairs.

The leaves are thin-leathery, lanceolate-ovate, or lanceolate-long elliptical, with the underside slightly hairy. Its flowers are yellow and extremely fragrant, with 15-20 tepals that are inverse lanceolate, measuring 3-4 cm in length and 4-5 mm in width.

The fruit is ovate-long and measures 1-1.5 cm, containing 2-4 wrinkled seeds. The flowering period is from June to July, while the fruiting period is from September to October.

This plant is native to the southeastern part of Tibet, the southern and southwestern regions of Yunnan in China. It also grows in India, Nepal, Myanmar, and Vietnam, typically in areas with a moist and warm climate.

The tree is valued for its intensely fragrant flowers and beautiful shape, making it a favorite ornamental species. It also demonstrates strong resistance to toxic gases.

The flowers can be used to extract aromatic oil or scent tea and can be made into a medicinal extract. Its leaves can be distilled to produce an oil used in fragrance formulations.

The wood from this tree is soft, of high quality, and is a valuable resource for shipbuilding and furniture-making.

21. Michelia Figo

Michelia Figo

Michelia Figo : Michelia Figo is an evergreen shrub from the Magnoliaceae family. Its bark is gray-brown with dense branching. The buds, young branches, leaf stalks, and flower stems are densely covered with yellow-brown velvet hairs.

The leaves are leathery, either narrowly elliptical or inversely ovate-elliptical. The flowers stand erect, pale yellow with occasional red or purple edges, and emit a sweet, strong fragrance.

The fruit is either ovate or spherical. Its flowering period is from March to May, and it bears fruit from July to August. Its name “Banana Shrub” is derived from the fact that when the flower blooms, the buds are not fully open, thus resembling a “smiling face”.

Originally from the southern provinces of South China, in the Yangtze River region, it requires a greenhouse for overwintering. It thrives in mixed forests on shaded slopes and is especially abundant along stream valleys.

The Banana Shrub prefers a warm, humid climate, acidic soil, and does not tolerate drought, extreme sunlight, cold, or waterlogging. It’s not particularly picky about soil quality. Propagation can be achieved through cuttings, layering, or grafting.

Medicinally, the Banana Shrub promotes blood circulation, stops coughing, facilitates urination, and regulates menstruation. It’s commonly used to treat menstrual irregularities, chronic bronchitis, prostatitis, and frequent urination.

Its petals can be mixed with tea to create a floral blend. The Banana Shrub has a strong ability to purify the air and is ideal for planting near homes or along fences.

22. Mimosa Pudica

Mimosa Pudica

Mimosa Pudica : Mimosa Pudica is a sprawling, sub-shrub herbaceous plant belonging to the Leguminosae family. It grows up to 1 meter tall, with a cylindrical stem that branches.

The stipules are lanceolate, with the leaflets in a pinnate formation and are linear-elliptical in shape. The flowers are numerous, pale red, globular, and in a head-like arrangement.

The corolla is bell-shaped, and the pods are flat-elliptical. Seeds are ovate. It flowers between March and October, fruiting from May to November.

Originally from tropical America, it grows in wastelands and shrubberies.

Unique to this plant, its pinnae and leaflets fold inwards and droop when touched or shaken. This mechanism is often associated with the plant’s “shyness”, which is why it’s called the “Sensitive Plant” or “Shy Plant”.

This reaction can also indicate weather changes. The floral symbolism is “shyness”, and its movement also resembles a bow, representing “politeness”.

The entire Sensitive Plant is used medicinally, offering sedative properties. Fresh leaves can be mashed and applied externally to treat herpes zoster. The plant contains “mimosine”, which is slightly toxic. In the Yangtze River region, it is commonly cultivated for ornamental purposes.

23. Mirabilis Jalapa Linn

Mirabilis Jalapa Linn

Mirabilis Jalapa Linn (Four O’Clock Flower): Mirabilis Jalapa Linn, commonly known as the Four O’Clock Flower, belongs to the Nyctaginaceae family.

It is a perennial herbaceous flower, growing to a height of 60-100 centimeters. Flowers, often clustered at the ends of stems, are yellow and emit a jasmine-like fragrance, which is particularly delicate. They open in the afternoon and wilt by the next morning.

The corolla is funnel-shaped with wavy, shallow edges but is not divided into petals. The fruit is spherical, black, angular, and resembles a landmine in appearance. Planting is best in March-April. The Four O’Clock Flower prefers temperate and moist climatic conditions.

It is sensitive to cold, with the above-ground parts dying off in winter, but new plants sprout in the subsequent spring. It’s an easy-to-grow plant that requires appropriate fertilization and watering.

24. Moluccella Laevis

Moluccella Laevis

Moluccella Laevis (Bells of Ireland): Moluccella Laevis, known as Bells of Ireland, belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant. It grows to a height of 50-60 centimeters, with a quadrangular stem that doesn’t branch.

The leaves are opposite, heart-shaped and have a sparsely toothed margin. Their petioles are roughly the same length as the leaves. The flowers are white with a lip-shaped corolla, and the small nuts are smooth. It blooms from June to July.

Bells of Ireland has a unique floral structure. The small opposite leaves and white flowers resemble shells. This plant is eco-friendly and is native to Western Asia, Syria, India, and has been introduced in China.

Bells of Ireland stands out for its unique and elegant appearance. It’s a popular choice worldwide for floral arrangements and can also be used for dried flowers or potted ornamental displays.

Various horticultural varieties exist, with most having green calyces. There are also varieties with white, yellow, and other types of calyces.

25. Monarda Didyma

Monarda Didyma

Monarda Didyma (Bee Balm): Monarda Didyma, commonly known as Bee Balm or Oswego Tea, belongs to the Lamiaceae family.

It is a perennial herbaceous plant with nearly hairless stems, though the nodes and upper parts along the edges have long soft hairs that fall off over time. Its leaves are ovate-lanceolate, up to 10 centimeters long, with a rounded base and unevenly serrated edges.

The umbellate flower clusters form a head up to 6 centimeters in diameter. The corolla of the flowers is purplish-red, with fine soft hairs, and blooms around July.

Originally native to the Americas, Bee Balm thrives in cool, moist, and sun-exposed environments, though it can also tolerate partial shade.

However, lesser sunlight can reduce its flowering. This plant is hardy, adaptable to various soil types, and cold-resistant. It doesn’t prefer overly dry conditions. Propagation is typically through seeds or by dividing the plant.

Bee Balm’s vivid flowers have a long bloom time, and the flowers open uniformly. Its branches and leaves emit a pleasant aroma.

Additionally, Bee Balm is an excellent aromatic plant. Its fresh leaves can be used to extract essential oils, and its dried flowers can serve as incense or be used for tea.

26. Monotropa Uniflora Linn

Monotropa Uniflora Linn

Monotropa Uniflora Linn (Indian Pipe): Monotropa Uniflora Linn, commonly known as the Indian Pipe or Ghost Plant, belongs to the Ericaceae family.

It’s a perennial herbaceous mycoheterotroph, meaning it gets its nutrients from fungi. The entire plant lacks chlorophyll, is fleshy, and is initially white but turns black-brown when dry.

The stem stands upright, singular, and doesn’t branch. Its roots are thin, branching extensively and interweaving to resemble a bird’s nest. The plant has scale-like leaves, and its flowers, initially nodding, stand erect as they mature.

The Indian Pipe can be found in China, Russia, Japan, India, Southeast Asia, and North America. It thrives in forests situated at altitudes between 800 and 3850 meters. Owing to its fleshy and crystal-clear white appearance, it’s regarded as an ornamental plant.

Medicinally, its root or the whole plant can be used. It is believed to have a sweet taste and a neutral nature, and is traditionally used to treat coughs due to lung weakness.

27. Mountain Gardenia

Mountain Gardenia

Mountain Gardenia: Mountain Gardenia, also known by several names including Gardenia, Yellow Gardenia, Sparrow’s Tongue Flower, Lin Lan, Mu Dan, Xian Zhi, and Yue Tao, is typically used for landscaping, beautifying environments during public works projects.

It is a shrub, growing between 0.3 to 3 meters in height. Young branches often have short hairs, and the branches are cylindrical in shape with a gray hue.

The leaves are usually opposite, leathery (sometimes papery), and occasionally come in whorls of three. They can take on various shapes: long ovate-lanceolate, ovate-elliptical, or elliptical, measuring 3-25 cm in length and 1.5-8 cm in width.

The blooming period spans from March to July, and the fruiting period is from May to the following February.

Mountain Gardenia is quite drought-resistant. The optimal temperature range for its growth is between 22 to 28°C. It prefers environments with high temperature, sufficient sunlight, good humidity, and well-drained soil.

Slightly clayey loam soil is ideal for its growth. This resilient plant has strong root development. Common propagation methods include cutting, but it can also be propagated through seeding or layering.

28. Mrs. Perry Slocum

Mrs. Perry Slocum

Mrs. Perry Slocum: Mrs. Perry Slocum is one of the varieties of lotus. It is a perennial aquatic herb. The rhizomes are horizontally oriented, thick, and have expanded nodes containing several vertical air chambers.

Adventitious roots sprout from below. The leaves are circular, shield-shaped with slightly wavy edges, and smooth on the top with a powdery white substance. The petioles are robust and cylindrical, being hollow inside.

The flowers are double-petaled with around 70 petals and are bowl-shaped. The flower bud has a peach-pink hue. The flowers transition from a peach-pink color to pink at the base, and by the third day, turn yellow with a slight pink at the tips.

Being an aquatic plant, it thrives in relatively stable calm shallow waters such as lakes, swamps, wetlands, and ponds. It loves sunlight and requires full sun exposure during its growth phase.

Lotus plants are not shade-tolerant; if grown in semi-shaded conditions, they will exhibit strong phototropism. This cultivated variety is widely used for ornamental purposes in parks and gardens.

29. Mucuna Birdwoodiana

Mucuna Birdwoodiana

Mucuna Birdwoodiana: Mucuna Birdwoodiana is an evergreen, large woody vine belonging to the leguminous family and the genus Mucuna. When the stem is cut, it initially oozes a white sap, which turns blood-red after 2-3 minutes.

The terminal leaflets are elliptical, ovate, or nearly inverted ovate in shape, with pointed tips and a rounded or nearly wedge-shaped base. Its flowers are racemose, either growing on old stems or axillary, with white or greenish-white corollas.

The fruit pods are woody. The flowering period is from April to June, and the fruiting period is from June to November. The shape of the flowers of Mucuna Birdwoodiana resemble little birds perched in clusters on stems.

From a distance, it looks as if many birds are gathering together, hence it is also named “Grain Sparrow Flower” or “Birdwood’s Mucuna.”

Mucuna Birdwoodiana is native to several provinces in China. It’s a hardy plant, growing rapidly and is relatively shade-tolerant with some cold resistance.

It prefers a warm, moist climate and fertile soil. Typically, it grows at altitudes ranging from 800 to 2,500 meters on sunny mountain slopes, roadsides, and stream banks, climbing over trees and shrubs.

The species is listed as “Least Concern (LC)” on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Propagation is commonly done through seeding.

The vine stem of Mucuna Birdwoodiana is used medicinally, benefiting in blood enrichment, facilitating blood circulation, and strengthening muscles and bones. It is primarily used for conditions such as anemia, reduced white blood cells, back and leg pain, and more.

However, its seeds are toxic and should not be consumed. Given its bird-like flowers, Mucuna Birdwoodiana has high ornamental value.

30. Multicolored Sunflower

Multicolored Sunflower

Multicolored Sunflower: Also known as “Cai Kui”, the Multicolored Sunflower is a variety of ornamental sunflower. It’s an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Asteraceae family and the genus Helianthus.

The plant grows to a height of around 1.5 meters and is covered with stiff hairs. The leaves are alternate, petiolate, ovate in shape, green in color, with pointed tips, and sometimes the leaf margins are serrated.

The flower head is borne singly at the top of the stem, with a disk diameter of about 10 cm. The ray flowers are yellow, but with large patches of red, brown, or purple in the middle. The flowering period spans from June to September, and the achenes are black.

Being an annual herb, the Multicolored Sunflower enjoys warmth or high temperatures, is robust, and doesn’t require special care. It has a strong appetite for nutrients and can grow in almost any type of soil.

31. Multiflora Rose

Multiflora Rose

Multiflora Rose: The Multiflora Rose is a perennial, deciduous shrub that belongs to the Rosaceae family and the Rosa genus. It can have an upright, climbing, or sprawling growth habit.

The stems of the rose are armed with thorns, and its leaves are alternately arranged. Flowers may either be solitary or grow in clusters at the top, and they can be red, white, pink, yellow, purple, among other colors.

The fruits are almost red and spherical. It flowers from May to June. The name “Multiflora Rose” is derived from its sprawling nature and its tendency to climb and attach to walls.

Originally native to China, the Multiflora Rose primarily thrives in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, subtropics, and tropical mountainous areas. It enjoys sunlight, is cold-resistant, and can withstand winter in northern China.

It’s a highly adaptive plant and isn’t very picky about soil types. However, it thrives best in loose, fertile, moist, and well-draining soil. Propagation is mainly done through planting and can be achieved through cuttings, grafting, layering, or dividing.

Medicinally, the Multiflora Rose has cooling properties and is bitter and slightly astringent. It can clear heat, promote diuresis, expel wind, activate blood circulation, and detoxify.

It’s used to treat lung pain, dementia, arthritis, paralysis, frequent urination, menstrual irregularities, and injuries from falls or blows. The fragrance and volatile oils released by the rose can aid in sleep and have significant antibacterial properties.

The rose is also symbolic: red roses represent passionate love, pink roses symbolize vows of love, and white roses denote pure love.

32. Murraya Exotica

Murraya Exotica

Murraya Exotica: Murraya Exotica, a small tree of the Rutaceae family and the Murraya genus, is recognized for its unique characteristics. The leaves are compound, either ovate or inverted ovate elliptical, with short petioles.

The flowers are white, fragrant, with long elliptical petals, while the pistil and ovary are pale green. The fruit ranges from orange-yellow to bright red, is broad ovate or elliptical, and contains a sticky pulp.

The flowering period is from April to August, and the fruiting period is from September to December.

Due to its intense fragrance, which can be detected from several miles away when in full bloom, it’s named Murraya Exotica, which translates to “fragrance that travels seven miles.”

Originally from Southwest China, Murraya Exotica is commonly found near coastlines, on gentle slopes, and in shrubby areas of small hills. It prefers warm and humid climates, ample sunlight, is drought-resistant but not frost-hardy, and can tolerate a bit of shade.

During winter, the room temperature should not drop below 5°C (41°F). It grows best in deep, fertile soil with good drainage. Propagation is usually done by seeding, layering, or through cuttings.

Both the leaves and flowers of Murraya Exotica emit a strong spicy and sweet scent, which effectively repels mosquitoes.

When potted and placed indoors, it can keep mosquitoes at bay, preventing bites and the potential spread of diseases. Additionally, it has a high resistance to toxic gases like sulfur dioxide.

33. Musa Coccinea

Musa Coccinea

Musa Coccinea (Scarlet Banana): Musa Coccinea, or Scarlet Banana, is a perennial tall herbaceous plant belonging to the Musaceae family and the Musa genus. The leaf sheaths overlap, forming a pseudostem.

The leaves are large, elongated, and do not have white powder on them. Their bases are rounded and notably asymmetrical. The leaf stalk has narrow wings.

The inflorescence stands upright, with bright and striking red bracts on the outside and pink ones inside, with noticeable wrinkles. Each bract conceals a column of flowers.

The tepals are cream-colored. The fruits are straight, greyish-white, without edges, and tend to be droopy. It produces a lot of seeds and typically flowers in summer and autumn.

This plant is native to China but can also be found in Vietnam. Scarlet Banana usually grows in valleys or on slopes with adequate water supply.

It prefers a warm and humid climate, is not frost-hardy, and thrives in deep, fertile, and moist soil. Propagation methods include division and seeding.

Medicinally, the flowers of Musa Coccinea can be used to stop bleeding, particularly nosebleeds. The roots have cooling and blood-purifying properties, are astringent, and are used to treat symptoms like weakness, dizziness, swelling, abnormal vaginal discharge, and hemorrhage.

Besides its medicinal properties, the Scarlet Banana is also valued as an ornamental plant and can be planted near windows, corners, or beside rockeries.

34. Muscari Botryoides

Muscari Botryoides

Muscari Botryoides (Grape Hyacinth): Muscari Botryoides, commonly known as Grape Hyacinth, is a perennial herb. The leaves are basal, linear, slightly fleshy, dark green, and often have inward-rolling edges, reaching approximately 20cm in length.

The plant stands about 15-30cm tall, and its underground portion is a bulb covered in a white membrane, with a diameter of 1-3cm and height of around 1.5cm. It flowers between March and May.

Introduced from Europe, Grape Hyacinth is an excellent ornamental plant that forms a beautiful ground cover. This small bulbous flower thrives in warm and cool climates.

It enjoys sunlight but can also tolerate shade. The plant prefers temperatures between 15°C to 30°C and grows best in loose, fertile, well-draining sandy loam soil.

Flowering early and for an extended period, Grape Hyacinth is commonly used as ground cover under sparse forests or for flower beds, lawns, and edgings. It can also be featured in rock gardens or as potted plants for home decor. Additionally, it makes an attractive cut flower.

35. Musella Lasiocarpa

Musella Lasiocarpa

Musella Lasiocarpa (Chinese Yellow Banana or Chinese Dwarf Banana): Musella Lasiocarpa, also known as the Chinese Yellow Banana or Chinese Dwarf Banana, belongs to the Musaceae family and is a perennial clumping herb.

It has a short pseudo-stem, with the true stem remaining small until flowering. The leaves are long and oval-shaped. The inflorescence is upright and emerges from the pseudo-stem, with pale yellow or yellow bracts.

The fruits are tri-angled ovate, and the seeds are large, flattened, and either dark brown or brown. It usually blooms from August to September.

When in full bloom, from a distance, its golden-yellow inflorescence looks like golden lotuses springing from the ground, leading to its name which translates as “Golden Lotus Erupting from the Earth.”

The plant is native to Yunnan, China. It loves light but avoids direct sun exposure during summer. It’s not frost-hardy, avoids waterlogged conditions, and prefers well-draining soil. Common propagation methods include division and seeding.

The flowers of Musella Lasiocarpa are used in traditional medicine for their astringent and hemostatic properties. The stem juice can be used as a remedy for alcohol intoxication and poisoning from certain plants.

Apart from its medicinal properties, it’s a unique ornamental plant and can be planted in gardens, particularly in front of or behind trees.

The pseudo-stem is thick, tender, rich in starch and various vitamins, and can be harvested as a vegetable with potential health benefits, including weight management.

36. Mussaenda Anomala

Mussaenda Anomala

Mussaenda Anomala: Mussaenda Anomala, which belongs to the Rubiaceae family, is a climbing shrub also known as “Big Leaf White Paper Fan.” It can grow between 1 to 3 meters tall. Its young twigs have sparse appressed soft hairs.

The leaves are opposite, thin papery, ovate or elliptically ovate, with a tapering tip and a short point at the base, lightly hairy on both sides.

The multi-branching umbel inflorescence is terminal, slightly appressed with soft hairs, and has early-deciduous bracts with lanceolate small bracts. The pods are about 4mm long, and it typically flowers in June.

This plant is native to China and commonly grows on mountain slopes, valleys, stream edges, shrublands, and at the edge of forests. It prefers shady, cool, and moist environments and cannot withstand harsh cold. It thrives in fertile, loose, humus-rich, sandy, acidic soil. Reproduction typically occurs through seeding or stem cuttings.

Medicinally, Mussaenda Anomala has a slightly bitter and sweet taste, with a cooling nature. It is believed to have properties that clear heat, detoxify, reduce swelling, and discharge pus. It can be used to treat symptoms of the common cold, sore throat, and urinary difficulties.

37. Myosotis Alpestris

Myosotis Alpestris

Myosotis Alpestris (Alpine Forget-me-not): Myosotis Alpestris, commonly known as the Alpine Forget-me-not, belongs to the Boraginaceae family and is a perennial herb.

The plant can grow up to 50 cm in height. It has a single stem or sometimes several stems that are typically erect. The leaves that grow at the base are narrow lanceolate or linear-lanceolate.

The corolla of the flower initially appears red when it first blooms, but later turns blue. The small nutlets are ovate and dark yellowish-brown in color. The flowering and fruiting period extends from June to August.

The Alpine Forget-me-not thrives in mountainous regions, on the edges of forests or underneath them, and on hillsides or valley grasslands.

It’s a hardy plant that prefers dry, cool climates and doesn’t fare well in humid and hot conditions. It loves sunlight, is drought-tolerant, and grows best in temperatures ranging from 20°C to 25°C.

Loose, fertile, well-draining, slightly alkaline soil is ideal for its growth. This plant can be found in various parts of the world, including India, Pakistan, the Kashmir region, Iran, Kazakhstan, and Europe.

Nutritionally, Myosotis Alpestris contains a significant amount of vitamins, which can help regulate the body’s metabolism.

Symbolically, the flower represents eternal love and everlasting memories. Its stems are often used in floral arrangements and gift bouquets.

Additionally, the Alpine Forget-me-not has been chosen as the state flower of Alaska, USA.

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