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Chrysanthemum Lavandulifolium: Growing Tips and Varieties

The Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium is a perennial herb in the Asteraceae family. Its stems are densely covered in soft hairs, which become sparser or absent at the lower part; the leaves are large and thin, mostly hairless on both sides. The basal and mid-stem leaves are diamond, fan-shaped, or nearly reniform, with a green or pale […]

The Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium is a perennial herb in the Asteraceae family. Its stems are densely covered in soft hairs, which become sparser or absent at the lower part; the leaves are large and thin, mostly hairless on both sides.

The basal and mid-stem leaves are diamond, fan-shaped, or nearly reniform, with a green or pale green surface, and are bipinnately or palmately lobed; the capitulum is shallowly dish-shaped, with four layers of involucral bracts, whose edges are brownish-black or dark brown with a broad membranous margin, shaped linear, long-ovate, or ovate; the achene is about 2 millimeters long; it blooms and fruits from June to August.

Chamomile is found in China and Japan. It grows on mountain roadsides, hillsides, wastelands, and forest edges, favoring warm and well-lit environments. It is not particular about soil types, preferring fertile conditions.

Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium

It does not thrive in heavy, waterlogged soils. Chamomile can be propagated through root division, cuttings, seeding, and tissue culture, with root division being the most common method.

Chamomile has a bitter and spicy flavor, and it is slightly cooling. It possesses properties that clear heat, detoxify, reduce swelling, and lower blood pressure.

It can be used to treat symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, red and swollen eyes, boils, high blood pressure, hepatitis, enteritis, and bites from snakes and insects. Chamomile can also be brewed as a tea, which helps soothe the liver and lungs.

I. Morphological Characteristics

Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium

Perennial herbs, standing 0.3 to 1.5 meters tall with creeping rhizomes. The stem is erect, branching from the middle upwards, or branching only in the upper part where the corymbiform inflorescences are located.

The stem and branches are sparsely covered with soft hairs, but more densely so near the top and on the peduncles of the inflorescence.

Basal and lower leaves fall off during the flowering period. The middle stem leaves are oval, broadly oval, or ovate-elliptical, measuring 2 to 5 centimeters in length and 1.5 to 4.5 centimeters in width.

They are bipinnately divided, with the primary divisions being entire or nearly so, and the secondary divisions being semidivided or shallowly divided. The primary lateral lobes have 2 to 3 (or 4) pairs.

The uppermost leaves, or those just below the inflorescence, are pinnately divided, trifid, or entire. All leaves are the same or nearly the same color on both sides, sparsely or somewhat more densely soft-haired, or nearly hairless on the upper surface.

The petioles of the middle stem leaves are 0.5 to 1 centimeter long, with a split leaf ear at the base or without ears.

The capitulum inflorescences have a diameter of 10 to 15 (to 20) millimeters, often arranged in loose or slightly dense compound umbel-like clusters at the tops of the stem branches.

The involucre is disc-shaped, 5 to 7 millimeters in diameter, with about five layers of bracts. The outer layer is linear or linear-oblong, 2.5 millimeters long, glabrous or sparsely soft-haired; the middle and inner layers are ovate, oblong-elliptical to lanceolate, with all bract tips rounded and margins white or light brown and membranous.

The ray florets are yellow, with elliptical ligules 5 to 7.5 millimeters long, entire at the tip or with 2 to 3 indistinct teeth. The achenes are 1.2 to 1.5 millimeters long. The flowering and fruiting period is from May to November.

II. Main Varieties

Variety:

Dendranthema lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Ling & Shih var. discoideum

Morphological Characteristics:

The ray flowers are short, with the ligule measuring 1 millimeter in length. There are three layers to the involucre. This variety grows on mountain slopes at an altitude of 2700 meters.

Variety:

Dendranthema lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Ling & Shih var. seticuspe (Maxim.) Shih.

Morphological Characteristics:

The leaves are large and thin, with little to no hair on both sides. Clearly, this is a type of ecological variant that thrives in moist or semi-moist conditions.

Variety:

Dendranthema lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Ling & Shih var. tomentellum (Hand.-Mazz.) Ling et Shih.

Morphological Characteristics:

This variety features leaves that are oblong-elliptical or oblong-ovate, with the underside densely covered with long or short soft hairs.

III. Growing Environment

Chrysanthemums prefer a warm, well-lit environment and are not particular about soil quality, although they do enjoy fertile conditions. They do not thrive in heavy, clay-rich soils or in low-lying areas prone to waterlogging.

IV. Distribution Range

Chrysanthemums are found in China and also have a presence in Japan. They grow along mountain and roadside verges, on hillsides, in wastelands, and at the edges of forests.

V. Propagation Methods

Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium can be propagated by division, stem cuttings, sowing, and tissue culture, with division being the most common method.

Chrysanthemums can be propagated through division, cuttings, seeding, and tissue culture, with division being the most commonly used method.

Division: After harvesting chrysanthemums, select robust plants and cut away the remaining stems. Cover with horse manure or a mix of soil and organic fertilizer to keep warm and overwinter, encouraging the root buds to sprout early the following spring.

In March or April, when new shoots appear, remove the covering manure to accelerate growth. From late April to early May, when the shoots are about 20 centimeters tall, dig them up and divide the plants.

Plant the divided shoots in holes about 10 centimeters deep, spaced 50 centimeters apart in rows and 30 centimeters apart in the plant bed, placing 1-2 plants per hole. Cover with soil and firm down.

Cuttings: Use the same selection and overwintering process as for division. In late April, when shoots are 15-20 centimeters tall, cut them at ground level and select robust cuttings over 10 centimeters in length.

Remove the bottom 2-3 leaves and plant the cuttings in a nursery bed at a spacing of 7 centimeters by 7 centimeters. Ensure shade and moisture retention, and within about 20 days, new roots should emerge.

Once two new leaves have grown, the cuttings are ready to be transplanted using the same method as for divided plants.

VI. Cultivation Techniques

Weed Control and Soil Cultivation

After transplanting and once the seedlings are established—indicated by no wilting in the afternoon—it is time to start loosening the soil and weeding. This should generally be done 3 to 4 times until the budding phase, after which it should not continue.

Mid-term weeding can be carried out using 35% Bispyribac-sodium EC at a dosage of 70 milliliters per 667 square meters, or manual weeding can be performed.

Top Dressing

During the vigorous growth phase after transplanting, apply approximately 1000 kilograms of dilute manure water per 667 square meters.

At the onset of bud formation, apply an additional 2000 kilograms of the aforementioned fertilizer and 10 to 15 kilograms of calcium superphosphate, or use a 2% calcium superphosphate solution for foliar feeding.

Irrigation and Drainage

Post-transplanting, irrigation is necessary during dry spells to maintain moisture and ensure a high survival rate.

Once established, a drier soil is preferable to promote root development and control excessive growth of the plant above ground. In case of rain, timely drainage is crucial to lower soil moisture.

Pinching

After the plants have successfully been transplanted and reached a height of 15 to 20 centimeters, choose a sunny day to pinch off 1 to 2 centimeters from the stem tips to encourage branching.

Repeat this process every two weeks, for a total of 3 to 4 times. After late July, cease pinching to prevent excessive branching and small flower size.

VII. Pest and Disease Control

Leaf Blight

Also known as leaf spot disease, this fungal infection can occur at any stage of growth and is more severe during rainy seasons. The lower leaves are usually the first to be affected, showing nearly circular purplish-brown spots with a gray-white center.

In the later stages, tiny black dots (conidia) appear on the spots. As the spots enlarge, the entire leaf dries up (but does not fall off).

Control measures include regulating moisture in the early growth stages to facilitate ventilation and light penetration; draining water promptly after rain to reduce soil moisture; removing and burning diseased leaves as soon as the disease appears; and spraying with Bordeaux mixture 1:1:100 or 50% Mancozeb at 800 to 1000 times dilution.

Root Rot

Root rot, a fungal disease, overwinters in the soil and on plant debris. Its occurrence is highly correlated with climatic conditions; low temperatures, high humidity, and insufficient light are the main environmental triggers.

Soil that is heavy, prone to compaction, and has poor aeration can also obstruct root development and lead to the disease.

It typically occurs from late June to early August and can be treated with 50% Thiram WG at a 500 times dilution. For rust disease, spray with 97% Sodium Ferric EDTA WG at a 200 times dilution.

Aphids

Beginning in late April, aphids can be controlled by spraying with 40% Dimethoate EC at a 200 times dilution or 25% Imidacloprid at a 1500 to 2000 times dilution.

VIII. Main Value

Medicinal Value

Chamomile has a bitter and spicy taste and is slightly cooling. It possesses properties for clearing heat, detoxifying, reducing swelling, and lowering blood pressure.

It can be used to treat symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, red and swollen eyes, boils, hypertension, hepatitis, enteritis, and snake or insect bites.

Health Benefits

Chamomile can be used to make tea, which is beneficial for soothing the liver and lungs.

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Peggie

Peggie

Founder of FlowersLib

Peggie was once a high school mathematics teacher, but she set aside her chalkboard and textbooks to follow her lifelong passion for flowers. After years of dedication and learning, she not only established a thriving flower shop but also founded this blog, “Flowers Library”. If you have any questions or wish to learn more about flowers, feel free to contact Peggie.

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